Archive for September, 2013

Katar / Nepal: “News”

Freitag, September 27th, 2013

“427 deaths among the Gulf’s Nepali Workers

Posted on Aug 16 2013

Nepal’s Foreign Employment Promotion Board has lately revealed important figures on its national migrants working abroad. The new statistics covering reporting last year’s numbers estimated that 2.5 million Nepalis work in Gulf and East Asian countries. Although those migrants make a 22% contribution to their country’s GDP, Nepal is not doing much to protect their rights in the hosting countries. This year’s death toll increased by 80 added to last year’s figure of 634 to become 726. Major reasons are related to illness, traffic accidents, suicide, and work accidents. Such figures might be higher since the report excludes undocumented workers. Those are denied the right to apply for a compensation from Nepal’s Migrant Workers Welfare Fund.

According to Nepal’s ambassador in Saudi Arabia, most of the deaths among Nepali workers in the Saudi Kingdom are caused by the climatic condition with the lack of a healthy routine. A cardiologist working with migrant workers said the air-conditioned rooms and the high-temperature working places lead to heart issues. Those workers also suffer from stress and food habits.

In the past year alone, 205 Nepali workers died in Saudi Arabia, 151 in Qatar, 47 in the UAE, and 14 in Bahrain. The report states that 80 of Nepali deaths in Saudi Arabia were natural but 70 in traffic accidents, 7 were heart-related, and 17 in suicide. The UAE had 6 in traffic accidents, 17 heart-related, and 3 in suicide. Notably, Qatar had a high number of heart-related deaths with 85 cases. Such deaths can be attributed to the extreme conditions of weather and forced labor that Nepali workers face as Qatar prepares to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup tournament.”

 

(Quelle: Migrant Rights.org)

 

Siehe auch:

Final Report On “The impact of Foreign Labour Migration to Enhance Economic Security and Address VAW among Nepali Women Migrant Workers and Responsiveness of Local Governance to Ensure Safe Migration”

Global: You gotta move?

Mittwoch, September 25th, 2013

“Nur 3,2 Prozent aller Menschen sind aus ihrem Geburtsland ausgewandert

Nach UN-Schätzungen wandern nicht mehr Menschen aus dem globalen Süden in den reichen Norden als in ein anderes Entwicklungsland, 90 Prozent der Flüchtlinge leben in Entwicklungsländern

Von Florian Rötzer | 24.09.2013

Globalisierung, so könnte man meinen, ist nicht nur die globale Bewegung von Gütern, Vermögen und Informationen, sondern auch der Menschen, die zu Migranten werden. Interessant ist, dass sich zwar viele Menschen zeitweise als Touristen oder beruflich über Grenzen hinweg reisen, aber dass die Migration weiterhin ein ziemlich kleines Phänomen ist.



Durchschnittliche Veränderungsrate der internationalen Migration in Prozent.

Durchschnittliche Veränderungsrate der internationalen Migration in Prozent.

Gerade einmal 3,2 Prozent der Menschheit, das sind 232 Millionen Menschen, leben in Ländern, in denen sie nicht geboren wurden, so der UN-Bericht International Migration 2013[1]. Das ist überraschend wenig, wenn auch 33 Prozent mehr als 2000, zumal die reichen Länder sich in Festungen, in gated nations, verwandeln, um die fantasierten Migrationsströme abzuwehren, die in Krisen wie jetzt beispielsweise im syrischen Bürgerkrieg in die nicht sonderlich reichen Nachbarländer Jordanien, Libanon oder den Irak, aber natürlich auch in die Türkei gelangen. Flüchtlinge machen 2013 mit 15,7 Millionen oder 7 Prozent nur einen kleinen Teil der Migranten aus. Fast 90 Prozent davon leben in Entwicklungsländern!

60 Prozent der internationalen Migranten, zwei Drittel im arbeitsfähigen Alter zwischen 20 und 64 Jahren, weit mehr als die 58 Prozent im weltweiten Durchschnitt, leben in den reichen Ländern des Nordens. 2013 am meisten in den USA, gefolgt von Russland, Deutschland – das wirklich als Einwanderungsland gelten muss -, Saudi-Arabien, die Vereinten Arabischen Emirate, Großbritannien, Frankreich, Kanada, Australien und Spanien. Hingegen sind in Europa Portugal, Polen, Finnland oder Norwegen nicht so interessant.

 

 

Schaut man auf den prozentualen Anteil internationaler Migranten an der Gesamtbevölkerung, dann ist deren Anteil etwa in den USA, Kanada, in der Ukraine, in Saudi-Arabien, Libyen, Australien, Deutschland. Österreich, Schweiz, Frankreich, Belgien oder Norwegen höher als 10 Prozent. In Steueroasen wie Andorra, San Marino oder Monaco ist der Ausländeranteil natürlich wesentlich höher, im Vatikan steigt er sogar auf 100 Prozent. Global leben allerdings zwei Drittel der internationalen Migranten ziemlich gleich verteilt in Europa und in Asien. In China, Indien und einigen afrikanischen Ländern, aber auch in Mexiko oder erstaunlicherweise Brasilien haben Migranten nur einen Anteil von weniger als einem Prozent. Allerdings ist der Eindruck nach den UN-Schätzungen falsch, dass die überwiegende Mehrzahl Migranten aus armen Entwicklungsländern in die reichen Länder auswandert, was man auch Süd-Nord-Migration nennt. Auch wenn in den Industrieländern die Migranten einen durchschnittlichen Anteil von 11 Prozent der Gesamtbevölkerung stellen und in den Entwicklungsländern nur 2 Prozent, aber die Unterschiede sind hier groß, so täuscht der Eindruck.

 

 

Nach neuen Schätzungen, die Geburtsland und Zielland der Migranten einbeziehen, war die Süd-Süd-Migration 1990 am stärksten ausgeprägt. Danach wusch der Anteil der Süd-Nord-Migration stärker, ab 2000 lag die Süd-Nord-Migration in etwa gleich mit der Süd-Süd-Migration, wobei allerdings die Migration vom Süden in den Süden wieder etwas stärker wuchs als die vom Süden in den Norden. 2013 sollen nach den Schätzungen 82,3 Millionen, die in Entwicklungsländern geboren wurden, in anderen Ländern des globalen Süden leben, während mit 81,9 Millionen fast genau so viel aus dem Süden in den Norden abgewandert sind. Die meisten dieser Migranten stammen aus Asien, gefolgt von Menschen aus Lateinamerika. Aus dem Norden in den globalen Süden wandern hingegen nur 13,7 Millionen aus, von Norden nach Norden sind es 53,7 Millionen.

Die “Süd-Süd-Migration” könnte man dadurch erklären, dass Auswanderer und Flüchtlinge nicht die notwendigen Mittel haben, um in die reichen Länder zu gelangen, und/oder den einfacheren, schnelleren und billigeren Weg in die Nachbarländer bevorzugen, wo sie auch leichter in Kontakt mit ihren Familien bleiben können. Möglicherweise wird diese Migration durch wirtschaftliche Fortschritte in den Entwicklungsländern begünstigt, dazu tragen aber auch regionale Konflikte vorbei.

Anhang

Links

Republik Südafrika: Leben und Sterben

Montag, September 23rd, 2013

“Healthcare in South Africa’s Eastern Cape collapses

A clinic in the Eastern Cape with no electricity or running water

Photo: Thys Dullart/Eastern Cape Health Crisis
A clinic in the Eastern Cape with no electricity or running water

JOHANNESBURG, 23 September 2013 (IRIN) – If you live in South Africa’s Eastern Cape province and cannot afford private healthcare, you have probably experienced what activists recently described as a “broken, inhumane and collapsed” health system, where “accountability is nonexistent”.

The Eastern Cape Health Crisis Action recently released “Death and Dying in the Eastern Cape“, a harrowing report that describes the disintegration of the provincial public health service on which over six million people depend.

Heartbreaking histories

The story of Lindeka Gxala, 33, who lost her baby when she was seven months pregnant, is among those in the report. Between February and May, Gxala visited her district clinic six times but only got to see the nurses twice. She eventually went to the Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital in neighbouring Mthatha for help, where she was told her baby was dead.

The nurses forced her to walk around the hospital, bleeding, with the dead foetus hanging from her body. “I tried to tell them that something was coming out of me. They told me to walk around more. I kept telling them about the pain. By then my dead child had come out feet first and the head was stuck inside me… I was still walking around when I collapsed from the pain. The nurses then removed another patient from her bed and put me in the bed.”

Eventually the foetus was surgically removed, but Gxala was given no anaesthetic or pain tablets.

In another account, Sister Ethel Mhlekwa, acting Operational Manager at Kotyana clinic, related how her facility was struggling to get basic services such as electricity. The clinic sometimes runs out of water, making it difficult for nurses to wash their hands, give patients water to drink, or keep the facility clean. “We speak about infection control, but speaking is all we can really do. We cannot possibly practice it properly,” she said in the report.

The Eastern Cape healthcare system is in such chaos that clinical staff are not appointed or paid on time, some tuberculosis hospitals are without X-ray machines, some clinics have only one blood pressure cuff, and neonatal mortality is the highest in the country.

Parts of the report were removed before publication, after Minister of Health Aaron Motsoaledi expressed discomfort about some of the testimonies from doctors and patients, saying that the extremely detailed medical information breached patient confidentiality.

Rescue plan

Within days of the report being published, Motsoaledi dispatched a task team to investigate conditions in the province. He addressed journalists on 19 September and announced measures to address the crisis. He said his department had been aware of the problems in Eastern Cape since an audit of 4,200 health facilities in 2011, and the work of rebuilding the health department in the province had been going on for some time.

Improving the infrastructure is at the top of his list. More than 1 billion rands [$100million] have been budgeted for the maintenance and refurbishment of hospitals in the 2013/14 financial year. The health department will be implementing 287 projects covering new additions, upgrades, renovation and maintenance works at 132 facilities, including 106 primary healthcare clinics and 8 nursing colleges. In addition, about 100 ambulances have been ordered for the province.

The task team was sent specifically to Holy Cross Hospital, near the town of Flagstaff, after the minister read the story of Dingeman Rijken, a doctor at the hospital who was suspended by the provincial health department for speaking out when Baby Ikho died because the hospital manager had failed to order sufficient oxygen supplies. The team found that the hospital’s maternity ward did not even have the basic equipment needed for patient care.

There were no blood pressure machines, so the midwives had contributed R17 ($2) each from their own pockets to buy one machine. The facility had no foetal heart monitors or a glucometer to monitor blood sugar; there were no baby warmers on the resuscitators, and babies were being resuscitated in cold rooms because there were no heaters.

Motsoaledi reinstated Rijken, and ordered that the CEO and the Nursing Manager be suspended with immediate effect, “pending a full investigation into [their] role in respect of serious dereliction of duty, mismanagement and harm to patient care”.

“It will not be fair for me only to take action in order for people to take accountability, without attempting to help the patients who use these facilities,” he said. Equipment has been sent to the hospital, including 20 blood pressure monitors, 5,000 disposable thermometers, suction machines, and 10 foetoscopes -stethoscopes to listen to foetal heart beats.

According to Motsoaledi, as of August 2013 the Eastern Cape had a backlog of 2,581 wheelchairs and other assistive devices like hearing aids, prostheses and cochlear implants. The health department will step in and purchase the equipment, estimated at R15.3 million. (US$1.5 million).

How did this happen?

Understanding why healthcare in the province is in such a mess requires a geography and history lesson. In 1994 the country’s four original provinces were split into nine. The Cape became the Northern, Eastern and Western Cape provinces. The eastern half of Eastern Cape had consisted of two former homelands – Transkei and Ciskei – while the western half had been part of the former Cape Provincial Administration of white apartheid South Africa.

When Dr Trudy Thomas was appointed as provincial health minister in 1994, healthcare expenditure was at R250 ($25) per person in the previously white part of Eastern Cape, R70 ($7) in the former Ciskei, and “a paltry R40″ ($4) in the Transkei. An investigation at the time found that health services in the (mostly white) western part of the province were good to excellent, but the Transkei health system was crumbling. Health facilities were in poor condition, they lacked adequate services and supplies, and faced critical staff shortages.

Almost 20 years later little seems to have changed. In 2012, the OR Tambo district of Eastern Cape (former Transkei) was ranked last of the country’s 52 districts when measured against a set of indicators contained in the Health System Trust District Barometer.

It has the worst rate of newborn deaths: 20.8 babies per 1,000 births, or double the 10.2 deaths per 1,000 births of the national average. Almost triple the number of children under five died in the district’s facilities, compared to the national average (11.4 percent), while it had the third-highest number of deaths among children less than a year old.

Motsoaledi said it was no surprise that “90 percent of this document titled ‘Death and Dying in the Eastern Cape’ is about the OR Tambo District. We have also arrived at the same conclusion.”

In 1997, Thomas tabulated the backlog of service and infrastructure needed by the health department in a report, and concluded that an extra R500 million [$50million] annually for five years – “under a separate, dedicated administration, used exclusively to close the service deficits in the Transkei – would lay the foundation for dignified functional health services across the province”.

But this proposal was at odds with the National Treasury’s decision, under advice from the World Bank, to avoid international borrowing to reduce the huge debt that SA had run up before 1994. “Instead of an extra half a billion rands for five years, the already inadequate health service budget was sliced further,” said Thomas.

By 2013 conditions in the province have reached a new low. Budget analyst Daygan Eager points out in the Eastern Cape Health Crisis Action Coalition report that decisions on the health budget are now based on “crude assessments of absorptive capacity and historical spending, and not on any measure of what is actually needed, to deliver services”.

The allocation and management of the budget may be a huge part of the problem, but even if it was increased, you would still have to contend with the provincial health department’s financial mismanagement and corruption. A Special Investigations Unit probe into corruption in the Eastern Cape Health Department found that between January 2009 and June 2010, officials and their associates pocketed more than R800 million (US$80 million).

In addition, the national Auditor General’s annual check of the financial statements showed that over the last decade “tens of millions of rands are lost each year through a mix of deliberate fraud, improper oversight and poorly managed supply chain systems”, the report said.

Thomas believes it is possible to reverse the collapse of the province’s health service, and suggests that a tiny team conduct a situational analysis of the infrastructure, supplies, equipment and staffing of all health facilities, calculate the cost of bringing those facilities up to minimum acceptable standards, and source the necessary funds.

The Minister of Health told journalists that the work of rebuilding the Eastern Cape’s health department has been going on for some time. But the true indicator of progress will be the number of patients in good health when they leave well-run, properly equipped and staffed facilities.

kn/he “

 

(Quelle: IRIN Africa.)

Zentralafrikanische Republik: Wer schaut hin?

Montag, September 23rd, 2013

“Central African Republic: Population caught up in armed violence

19-09-2013 News Release 13/159

Geneva (ICRC) – The deteriorating situation in the Central African Republic and the humanitarian consequences for the population are deeply troubling. The current upsurge in fighting is the deadliest the country has experienced since March.

© ICRC/Boris Heger. Bangui. Some of the injured who were evacuated from the combat zone by the ICRC.

© ICRC/Boris Heger. Bangui. Some of the injured who were evacuated from the combat zone by the ICRC.

“Civilians are the primary victims of the violence,” said Stefan Bigler, who heads a team of staff members from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) that managed to reach the city of Bouca on 12 September. “The priority has to be to treat the injured and help families whose homes have been looted or burnt to the ground. In addition, dead bodies, which sometimes lie neglected on the ground, have to be buried.”

Entire neighbourhoods have been deserted in the city of more than 20,000 people. The inhabitants have fled into the bush, to relatives or behind the walls of places of worship, leaving everything behind. The ICRC has arranged for 13 seriously injured people to be transferred by air from Batangafo to the referral hospital in Bangui. Within one week, volunteers of the Central African Red Cross Society have collected the mortal remains of 30 people for identification and burial.

Most health-care centres are closed and people are almost entirely dependent on humanitarian aid. “In places far from the capital, access to care is extremely limited and needs are immense,” said Bonaventure Bazirutwabo, the ICRC’s health coordinator in the country.

In some areas the violence has made it difficult to reach the victims. Clashes on the road to Bossangoa delayed the arrival of ICRC staff for several days.

“All parties must refrain from committing any acts of violence against civilians or against medical personnel and facilities,” said Georgios Georgantas, head of the ICRC delegation in Bangui. “Humanitarian organizations must be able to work in safety so that they can reach and bring aid to all victims. People’s very survival is at stake.”

For further information, please contact:
Vincent Pouget, ICRC Bangui, tel: +236 75 64 30 07
Wolde-Gabriel Saugeron, ICRC Geneva, tel: +41 22 730 31 49 or +41 79 244 64 05 “

 

(Quelle: ICRC.)

Kuba: Never say never

Montag, September 23rd, 2013

“Puerto Mariel wird erste Freihandelszone Kubas

Samstag, den 21. September 2013

(Venezuela, 20. September 2013, telesur).- Der kubanische Staatsrat unter Vorsitz von Präsident Raúl Castro hat am 20. September einem Dekret zugestimmt, dass den Hafen von Mariel zur ersten kubanischen Freihandelszone macht. Die rund 465 Quadratkilometer große Sonderentwicklungszone von Mariel ZEDM (Zona Especial de Desarrollo de Mariel) befindet sich etwa 45 Kilometer östlich der Hauptstadt Havanna.

Das Dekret wird am kommenden 1. November in Kraft treten. Der Hafenterminal soll einmal Kapazitäten für 3 Mio. Container pro Jahr haben. Bereits Ende dieses Jahres soll das Terminal teilweise in Betrieb genommen werden. Die ZEDM in Mariel soll den bisher in Havanna abgewickelten Seehandel ersetzen.

Brasilianische Investitionen in Höhe von 640 Mio. US-Dollar

In die Erarbeitung des Gesetzes für die ZEDM seien eigene wie internationale Erfahrungen eingeflossen, erklärte Castro anlässlich der Unterzeichnung der Novelle. Es wird erwartet, dass die ZEDM der wichtigste Außenhandelspunkt der Antilleninsel wird.

Dafür will Kuba Investitionen von 900 Mio. US-Dollar in dem Gebiet tätigen, 640 Mio. US-Dollar werden dabei über einen brasilianischen Kredit finanziert. Im Rahmen des „Megahafen-Projekts’ sind bisher bereits mehrere Anlagen durch Unternehmen der brasilianischen Firma Odebrecht errichtet worden.

Für „bestimmte Güter‘ sollen in der Freihandelszone andere Importzölle als sonst in Kuba gelten, wenn diese zur später nach Schaffung eines Mehrwerts wieder exportiert werden, so die Regierung. Auch für Produktion und den Verkauf von Gütern aus der ZEDM sollen andere Zölle angesetzt werden.

Kuba will eigene Wirtschaft durch die ZEDM ankurbeln

In der Freihandelszone werden spezielle Politiken für eine nachhaltige wirtschaftliche Entwicklung gelten, mit denen die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung durch Auslandsinvestitionen, technologische Innovation und Industrieansiedlung vorangetrieben werden soll.

Kuba wolle mit der ZEDM die eigenen Exporte steigern, einen Rückgang von Importen erreichen, neue Arbeitsplätze schaffen sowie eine dauerhafte Verknüpfung mit der Binnenwirtschaft des Inselstaates erreichen, hieß es in einem Bericht des kubanischen Fernsehens zu dem Projekt.”

 

(Quelle: Poonal.)

BRD/USA: Keine Kampfdrohnen in Kriegsgebieten (Veranstaltungshinweis)

Freitag, September 20th, 2013

Ein US-amerikanischer Friedensaktivist berichtet über aktuelle Kampagnen

Brian Terrell

Brian Terrell ist Mitglied von “Voices for Creative Non-Violence” (= Stimmen für kreative Gewaltfreiheit), eine US-amerikanische Friedensorganisation, die aktiven Widerstand gegen die Kriegspolitik der USA leistet. “Voices” organisierte zwischen 1990 und 2003 über 70 Delegationen in den Irak, um den verhängten Sanktionen gegen das irakische Volk entgegenzuwirken. Ein aktueller Schwerpunkt ist die Aufklärung über und der Protest gegen den Einsatz von Kampfdrohnen.

In den USA gehören diese ferngesteuerten, unbemannten Flugkörper längst zum festen Bestandteil des Waffenarsenals. Angesichts der hohen Zahl ziviler Opfer bei Aktionen des “gezielten Tötens” (targeted killing), z.B. in Pakistan, im Jemen oder in Afghanistan bestehen starke ethische und völkerrechtliche Bedenken gegen diese Methode der Kriegführung.

Brian Terrell hat für seinen friedlichen Protest gegen die Drohnen 2012/13 sechs Monate Gefängnis erhalten. Schon seit längerem wünscht sich die Bundeswehr für ihre Auslandseinsätze Kampfdrohnen, während sie bislang nur unbewaffnete Drohnen zu Aufklärungszwecken verwenden darf. Jetzt hat sich erstmals die Bundesregierung für eine solche Aufrüstung der Drohnenflotte ausgesprochen, auch wenn sie exportiert werden müssen.

Brian Terrell wird über die geopolitische Bedeutung dieses Waffensystems und seine Gefahren sowie über den Widerstand dagegen in den USA berichten.


Datum:   Mittwoch, 25. September 2013
Uhrzeit:  ab 19.00 Uhr
Ort:    AllerWeltHaus Hagen, Potthofstr. 22, 58095 Hagen

Der Eintritt ist frei.

Veranstalter_innen:

terrell_1.jpg

terrell_2.jpg

 

Siehe auch:

Drones and Gadflies – Framing the Debate on War by Remote Control
TÖTEN PER FERNBEDIENUNG. Kampfdrohnen im weltweiten Schattenkrieg