Archive for the ‘Bergbau’ Category

Malaysia/BRD: Für “saubere” Energie

Samstag, September 14th, 2013

“Seltene Erden – Fluch oder Segen für Malaysia?

Von Jade Lee

Am Sonntagnachmittag des 25. November 2012 hatten sich rund 20.000 Menschen auf dem Unabhängigkeitsplatz in Kuala Lumpur versammelt und missachteten die polizeiliche Warnung, dass diese Versammlung illegal sei. Die Menschenmenge saß friedlich im Regen vor der Polizeibarrikade und rief leidenschaftlich »Stop Lynas«. Viele Demonstrant/Innen trugen grüne T-Shirts, auf denen Umweltschutzslogans gedruckt waren. Sie hatten sich dort eingefunden, um die siebzig Läufer/Innen zu empfangen, die einen 13-tägigen Marsch über dreihundert Kilometer, der in Kuantan an der Ostküste der Malaiischen Halbinsel begann, in der Hauptstadt beendeten. Mit diesem Marsch drückten sie ihren Protest gegen die behördliche Bewilligung einer temporären Betriebslizenz für die weltweit größte Seltene Erden-Raffinerie aus. Bereits seit mehr als eineinhalb Jahren führen lokale Bewohner/Innen gemeinsam mit Aktivist/Innen eine Kampagne gegen die Seltene-Erden-Produktionsstätte des australischen Minenunternehmens Lynas Corporation (kurz Lynas) in der Nähe Kuantans. Lynas verschifft bereits Erzkonzentrat von seinem Bergbaugebiet am Mount Weld, das sich im Westen Australiens in der Nähe von Laverton befindet, zur finalen Produktionsphase in den rund 6.000 Kilometer entfernt gelegenen Hafen Kuantans zur dort ansässigen Raffinerie.

Das neue »grüne« Gold?

Für viele digitale und elektronische Bauteile bedarf es Oxide der Seltenen Erden. So sind sie auch in Hybrid- und Elektroautos, Windturbinen, Solarzellenpaletten, Energiesparlampen und Raketen enthalten. Im Juli 2011 hat der Technologiekonzern Siemens »eine Absichtserklärung zur Gründung eines Joint Ventures für die Produktion Seltener-Erden-Magneten unterzeichnet«. Laut Siemens »bedarf es für die Produktion von energieeffizienten Antriebsanwendungen und Windturbinengeneratoren diese Art von Magneten. Lynas wird für das Joint Venture Rohstoffe – vorwiegend Metalle, die Neodym enthalten – im Rahmen eines Langzeit-Liefervertrages bereitstellen«. Wenn dieses Joint Venture zustande kommt, wird Siemens mit 55 Prozent der Anteile der Mehrheitseigner sein. Lynas wird die restlichen 45 Prozent besitzen.1

Auch der deutsche Konzern BASF unterzeichnete trotz der Proteste im September 2011 einen Langzeitvertrag mit Lynas:

    »Gemäß den Vertragsbedingungen wird Lynas BASF mit einer festgelegten Jahresmenge Lanthan beliefern, welches der wesentliche Rohstoff bei der Produktion von BASFs Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC)-Raffineriekatalysatoren und bestimmter chemischer Katalysatorenerzeugnisse ist. Lynas wird diese Mengen durch das Lynas’ Rare Earth Separation Plant in Kuantan (Malaysia) bereitstellen, welches voraussichtlich im vierten Quartal 2011 mit 11.000 Metertonnen Gesamtjahresproduktionskapazität in Betrieb geht und im Jahr 2012 diese Menge auf 22.000 Metertonnen erhöhen wird. Zusätzliche Vertragseinzelheiten sind vertraulich.«

»Dieser Vertrag mit Lynas Corporation ist für unser Geschäft mit Chemie- und Raffineriekatalysatoren sowie für unsere Kunden ein bedeutender Schritt nach vorn«, sagt Dr. Hans-Peter Neumann, Senior-Vizepräsident von BASF Process Catalysts and Technologies. »Er ermöglicht es uns, unsere Lieferantenbasis für Seltene Erden weiter zu diversifizieren und zudem langfristig einen wesentlichen Teil des Lanthan-Bedarfs zu sichern.«2

 In Deutschland sind sowohl Siemens als auch BASF an hohe Umwelt- und Sozialstandards gebunden. Außerdem möchten diese globalen Großkonzerne gerne als ethisch korrekt handelnde und nachhaltige Unternehmen wahrgenommen werden. Hierzu konträr steht der starke lokale Protest gegen die Seltene Erden-Aufbereitung in Malaysia. Welche Konsequenzen ziehen die deutschen Unternehmen aus diesen Kontroversen?

Die versteckten Kosten der Extraktion Seltener Erden

Seltene Erden kommen relativ häufig auf der Welt vor. Erzkörper werden oft mit radioaktivem Thorium und Uranium gefunden. Die Verarbeitung Seltener Erden zu Oxiden ist allerdings mit hohen Gefahren verbunden, da hierbei hohe Mengen ätzender Säuren bei sehr hoher Temperatur zugegeben werden müssen, wodurch giftige Dämpfe, große Mengen Giftabfall und CO2 sowie andere Treibhausgase entstehen (…).”

Anmerkungen

1 Zu finden unter: < www.siemens.com/press/en/ pressrelease/?press=/en/pressrelease/2011/ industry/i20110742.htm>.

2 Weiterführende Informationen zu diesem Vertrag sind nachzulesen unter: < www.basf.com/group/corporate/ en/news-and-media-relations/news-releases/news- releases-usa/P-10-0076>.”

Weiterlesen …

 

(Quelle: Asienhaus.de)

Afrika: Kanada – nicht China

Samstag, Juni 1st, 2013

“How Canada Dominates African Mining

Foreign companies from a range of countries compete in Africa’s mining sector. But according to a number of measures, those from one country dominate: Canada.

ARTICLE | 18 APRIL 2013 – 9:42AM | BY TRAVIS LUPICK

When asked to think about foreign mining contracts in Africa, many people’s minds will jump to China, or perhaps one of the former colonial powers such as the UK or France. China’s construction and agricultural projects in particular are at the core of the ‘Africa Rising’ narrative, as are the Asian giant’s more than 1.3 billion consumers (…).”

Weiterlesen…

 

(Quelle: Think Africa Press.)

Bolivien: “Faires Gold”

Dienstag, Oktober 23rd, 2012

“The Project

EVERYTHING ELSE… IS JUST GOLD

The jewellery industry is the largest consumer of gold, highlighting its qualities as a symbol of status and as a portable, fungible store of wealth even in troubled times. The story of humanity is linked to gold perhaps because it shines or because it’s uncommon and durable; gold has been acknowledged for its symbolic meanings of luxury, status and prestige.

For Artisanal and Small Scale Miners (ASM) throughout the world, gold is a livelihood. They extract it in order to live day by day working in difficult conditions and to earn some money for a better future for themselves and for their families. Artisanal and Small Scale Mining receives displaced, unskilled and migrant workers who barely realise that what they produce is such an object of luxury in the worl.

Artisanal gold represents a complex paradox; it is hard to understand that the same metal represents vastly opposite things to miners and consumers. To the first, gold is subsistence; to the latter it is luxury. We belive that this paradox is a great developmental opportunity.

All of the gold produced by ASM reaches the global supply chain, and is ultimately refined in the same places, where gold from different sources becomes mixed into one. By creating a traceable path and incentives for responsible ASM to reach the market, we are providing a vehicle for the jewellery industry to transform the realities of ASM, which represent 90% of the workforce of the overall gold mining industry, contributing to a more sustainable planet and a fairer world.

Our dream is to unify producer and consumer criteria into one long term vision.

In Bolivia, Cumbre del Sajama is the support organization that works in the field with miners, encouraging them to improve their production systems and to reach the international market.

The main partners for archieving the strategic objectives are the Alliance for Responsible Mining (ARM) and Fairtrade Labelling Organisations International (FLO). These two organizations developed the first ever third party independent certification for gold in order to archieve social, environmental and economic development in artisanal and small-scale mining communities.

The partnership enables both organisations to meet shared strategic objectives, creating a system to ensure that artisanal and small-scale miners (ASM) can earn a better price for their gold. The partnership is communicated on product via a co-labelling hallmark using both the FAIRTRADE and FAIRMINED marks.

What are the challenges for Artisanal and Small Scale Miners (ASM)?

Despite producing gold, most ASM families are poor. Even worse, they are mostly kept in the “poverty trap” of informal economy, being taken advantage of by unscrupulous middlemen, lacking financial capital and legal security to improve their mines and increase productivity, and suffering from appalling labour and environmental conditions. Miners working under such conditions are then accused of being irresponsible and the vicious circle is closed by denying their right to formalize. Nevertheless, the vast majority of artisanal miners aspire to improve their livelihoods and are willing to work in a responsible manner, given proper incentives.

One of the main challenges for ASM is (…).”

Weiterlesen…

 

(Quelle: Fair Gold Bolivia.)

Anmerkung

Die Oktober-2012-Ausgabe der Zeitschrift “Lateinamerika Nachrichten” widmet sich in einem umfangreichen Dossier zum Bergbau in Lateinamerika auch dem Thema Kleinbergbau. Dieses Dossier kann in unserer Bücherei entliehen werden.

Grossbritannien: Schatten über der Olympiade

Donnerstag, Juli 5th, 2012

“Greenwashing the Olympics

By Daniel Nelson, CorpWatch Blog
July 4th, 2012

Greenwash Gold graphic.
Courtesy Greenwash Gold campaign

Rio Tinto, the global mining company, has been named as early front-runner for the Greenwash Gold award for the worst Olympic sponsor, with BP, the oil and gas multinational, in second place and Dow Chemical third.

The three corporations are banking on getting a good return on their purchase of the right to stick their names all over Olympic promotional material and activities. But Olympic branding has sparked bad publicity, too. Activists have accused the companies of “greenwashing”
–  a tactic by which companies “preserve and expand their markets by
posing as friends of the environment and enemies of poverty.”

Last week, as London celebrated one month to the Games opening, demonstrators in India and London staged protests against “the toxic reputation” of Dow Chemical for failing to take responsibility for clearing up the site of the 1984 industrial plant disaster in the Indian city of Bhopal to ensure that the toxic waste buried there does not continue to poison people.

“Dow Chemical have been refusing to accept that their wholly-owned subsidiary, the Union Carbide Corporation, is wanted on the criminal charges of culpable homicide for the Bhopal Gas Disaster,” said Colin Toogood of the Bhopal Medical Appeal. “We cannot understand why the Olympic organizers continue to defend Dow Chemical when these are the facts.”

Campaigners are particularly angry that Lord Coe, the four-times Olympic medalist who runs the London Olympics organizing committee, has failed to honor a promise made in response to a previous demonstration that he would be happy to meet demonstrators to discuss the issues they had raised.

Human rights organization Amnesty International joined in the criticism, complaining that Coe’s reaction to a mass of emails from the organization “was apparently to block all emails sent via our website, and disengage from any conversation about Dow’s involvement in the Olympics. This does not reassure us that the Olympic Committee is committed to ethical, responsible investment.”

Coe’s reluctance to engage with the demonstrators is not surprising, given that the Olympic organizers have conferred the title of ‘Sustainability Partner’ on BP. The activists say that the company is “a world-class climate criminal”, in the words of Emily Coats from the UK Tar Sands Network, who points out that "BP has just launched another shiny advertising campaign to continue to obscure from the public its devastating operations in the Gulf of Mexico, Alberta tar sands and pristine Arctic.”

Other actions have already targeted the company in London. Members of the “Reclaim Shakespeare Company” leaped on stage and performed an anti-BP “guerilla Shakespeare” skit in front of a theater audience that included many BP employees.

Rio Tinto must also be bracing for protests. Richard Solly of London Mining Network, one of the backers of the Greenwash Gold campaign, says: “Rio Tinto has provided nearly all the metals for the Olympic Medals from mines in Utah where local residents have accused the company of creating so much pollution that it is contributing to premature deaths and respiratory diseases. You can’t pretend to have ‘the greenest games ever’ when you’re working with such a dirty and disreputable company like Rio Tinto.”

Meredith Alexander, the ex-Olympics ‘ethics tsar’ who resigned over controversies surrounding Olympic sponsorship condemned Coe for ignoring concerns about unethical Olympic sponsors.

“He does not want to hear about BP’s investment in the most polluting form of oil, the environmental problems that come with Rio Tinto’s medals or the fact that Dow Chemical is the company now responsible for the Bhopal tragedy,” said Alexander.

Anti-corporate protests in London take place on fertile ground because of a series of corporate scandals, the latest of which are the $455 million fine imposed on Barclays bank for letting its traders manipulate the interbank lending rates such as Libor and Euribor to suit the bank’s trading positions (even business-friendly Chancellor, George Osborne has said criminal investigations could follow) and revelations about offshore tax avoidance schemes.

So a report that Olympic sponsors will avoid paying up to $942 million in tax as venues will be treated like offshore havens during the Games will add insult to injury.

A report by Ethical Consumer claimed that under new tax rules ushered in as part of “Team Great Britain’s” winning Olympic bid, corporate partners like Coca-Cola, McDonald’s and Visa were given a temporary exemption from corporation tax as “non-resident” companies from March 30 to November 8.

The new rules also reportedly mean foreign employees working for the companies do not have to pay income tax in the UK.

“The real winners in the London Olympics are those companies who stand to make millions out of the greatest sporting event in the world,” says Tim Hunt of Ethical Consumer.

On 28 July, the second day of the Olympics, the Counter Olympics Network is holding a demonstration in an east London park, on the doorstep of the main Olympic site, “to protest the government’s turning of the games into a showcase for corporate, financial and military power at a time people are crushed by sweeping austerity measures.”

 

(Quelle: CorpWatch.org)

Brasilien: Danke Deutschland!

Freitag, Januar 6th, 2012

“Brasiliens “strahlende” Zukunft – Uranbergbau in Caetité

In Caetité, Brasilien operiert die Uranmine des brasilianischen Unternehmens INB. Hier wird der Rohstoff für das brasilianische Atomprogramm produziert. Zwei Atomkraftwerke sind bereits am Netz, das Dritte befindet sich – mit deutscher Unterstützung – im Bau. Weitere AKWs sind in den nächsten Jahren geplant. Doch der Uranabbau hat gravierende Folgen für die Bevölkerung im Umfeld der Mine – die Brunnen der Bevölkerung sind radioaktiv verseucht, viele Menschen erkranken an Krebs. Der Transport der “Yellow Cake” zum Hafen ist gefährlich, die Bevölkerung wird von dem Unternehmen vor den Gefahren des Uranabbaus nicht gewarnt. Pater Osvaldino Barboso will dies ändern und kämpft für die Rechte der Menschen im Umfeld der Mine. Er setzt sich ein für mehr Aufklärung und Transparenz, für sauberes Wasser und den Schutz der Gesundheit der Menschen. Mit Hilfe von Misereor konnte ein Film über die Arbeit von Pater Osvaldino gedreht werden.

 

 

Mehr Infos im MISEREOR-Blog:
http://www.misereor.de/blog/2011/03/31/radioaktive-gefahr-in-verzug/

 

(Quelle: YouTube.com)

Siehe auch:

Violações de Direitos Humanos no Ciclo do Nuclear

Indonesien: “Das verdünnt sich doch”

Mittwoch, Dezember 28th, 2011

“PNG rejects appeal to block Ramu nickel sea dumping

A Papua New Guinea court has rejected an appeal by local landowners to block deep sea dumping of waste from the Ramu nickel mine, junior partner Highlands Pacific said on Thursday.

Posted: Thursday , 22 Dec 2011

SYDNEY – A move to block deep sea dumping of waste from the Ramu nickel mine in Papua New Guinea has been rejected in an appeals court, ending a lengthy legal battle delaying the Chinese-backed project, junior partner Highlands Pacific said on Thursday.

The $1.5 billion project, one the biggest Chinese investments ever in the impoverished South Pacific nation, has been plagued by protests over plans to dump 100 million tonnes of waste into the Bismarck Sea.

A court in Papua New Guinea had already approved the dumping, but an appeal by local landowners was lodged against the decision in September.

“It is now time to get on with the commissioning and operation of the project and for the benefits to start flowing through to all stakeholders,” Highlands Managing Director John Gooding said.

Highlands holds an 8.56 percent stake in the project. Metallurgical Corp of China leads a Chinese consortium that owns 85 percent, with the rest held by the Papua New Guinea government. The project, the first of its kind for Papua New Guinea, is being designed to yield 31,150 tonnes of nickel and 3,300 tonnes of cobalt a year for at least 20 years.

The partners expect the mine to be running at maximum capacity by late 2013.

(Reporting by James Regan; Editing by Lincoln Feast)

© Thomson Reuters 2011 All rights reserved”

 

(Quelle: Mineweb.com)