Posts Tagged ‘Atomindustrie’

Global: Strahlendes Loch im Himmel

Montag, Juli 30th, 2012

“NASA’s Dangerous Alliance With the Nuclear Industry

Nukes on Mars


World Nuclear News, the information arm of the World Nuclear Association which seeks to boost the use of atomic energy, last week heralded a NASA Mars rover slated to land on Mars on Monday, the first Mars rover fueled with plutonium.

“A new era of space exploration is dawning through the application of nuclear energy for rovers on Mars and the Moon, power generation at future bases on the surfaces of both and soon for rockets that enable interplanetary travel,” began a dispatch from World Nuclear News. It was headed: “Nuclear ‘a stepping stone’ to space exploration.”

In fact, in space as on Earth there are safe, clean alternatives to nuclear power. Indeed, right now a NASA space probe energized by solar energy is on its way to Jupiter, a mission which for years NASA claimed could not be accomplished without nuclear power providing onboard electricity. Solar propulsion of spacecraft has begun. And also, scientists, including those at NASA, have been working on using solar energy and other safe power sources for human colonies on Mars and the Moon.

The World Nuclear Association describes itself as “representing the people and organizations of the global nuclear profession.” World Nuclear News says it “is supported administratively and with technical advice by the World Nuclear Association and is based within its London Secretariat.”

Its July 27th dispatch notes that the Mars rover that NASA calls Curiosity and intends to land on August 6th, is “powered by a large radioisotope thermal generator instead of solar cells” as previous NASA Mars rovers had been. It is fueled with 10.6 pounds of plutonium.

“Next year,” said World Nuclear News, “China is to launch a rover for the Moon” that also will be “powered by a nuclear battery.” And “most significant of all” in terms of nuclear power in space, continued World Nuclear News, “could be the Russian project for a ‘megawatt-class’ nuclear-powered rocket.” It cites Anatoly Koroteev, chief of Russia’s Keldysh Research Centre, as saying the system being developed could provide “thrust…20 times that of current chemical rockets, enabling heavier craft with greater capabilities to travel further and faster than ever before.” There would be a “launch in 2018.”

The problem—a huge one and not mentioned whatsoever by World Nuclear News—involves accidents with space nuclear power systems releasing radioactivity impacting on people and other life on Earth. That has already happened. With more space nuclear operations, more atomic mishaps would be ahead.

NASA, before last November’s launch of Curiosity, acknowledged that if the rocket lofting it exploded at launch in Florida, plutonium could be released affecting an area as far as 62 miles away—highly-populated and including Orlando. Further, if the rocket didn’t break out of the Earth’s gravitational field, it and the rover would fall back into the atmosphere and break up, potentially releasing plutonium over a massive area. In its Final Environmental Impact Statement for the mission, NASA said in this situation plutonium could impact on “Earth surfaces between approximately 28-degrees north latitude and 28-degrees south latitude.” That includes Central America and much of South America, Asia, Africa and Australia.

The EIS said the costs of decontamination of plutonium in areas would be $267 million for each square mile of farmland, $478 million for each square mile of forests and $1.5 billion for each square mile of “mixed-use urban areas.” The Curiosity mission itself, because of $900 million in cost overruns, now has a price of $2.5 billion.

NASA set the odds very low for a plutonium release for Curiosity. The EIS said “overall” on the mission, the likelihood of plutonium being released was 1-in-220.

Bruce Gagnon, coordinator of the Global Network Against Weapons & Nuclear Power in Space , for more than 20 years the leading opposition group to space nuclear missions, declared that “NASA sadly appears committed to maintaining its dangerous alliance with the nuclear industry. Both entities view space as a new market for the deadly plutonium fuel…Have we not learned anything from Chernobyl and Fukushima? We don’t need to be launching nukes into space. It’s not a gamble we can afford to take.”

Plutonium has long been described as the most lethal radioactive substance. And the plutonium isotope used in the space nuclear program, and on the Curiosity rover, is significantly more radioactive than the type of plutonium used as fuel in nuclear weapons or built up as a waste product in nuclear power plants. It is Plutonium-238 as distinct from Plutonium-239. Plutonium-238 has a far shorter half-life–87.8 years compared to Plutonium-239 with a half-life of 24,500 years. An isotope’s half-life is the period in which half of its radioactivity is expended.

Dr. Arjun Makhijani, a nuclear physicist and president of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, explains that Plutonium-238 “is about 270 times more radioactive than Plutonium-239 per unit of weight.” Thus in radioactivity, the 10.6 pounds of Plutonium-238 being used on Curiosity is the equivalent of 2,862 pounds of Plutonium-239. The atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki used 15 pounds of Plutonium-239.

The far shorter half-life of Plutonium-238 compared to Plutonium-239 results in it being extremely hot. This heat is translated in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator into electricity.

The pathway of greatest health concern for plutonium is breathing in a particle leading to lung cancer. A millionth of a gram of plutonium can be a fatal dose. The EIS for Curiosity speaks of particles that would be “transported to and remain in the trachea, bronchi, or deep lung regions.” The particles “would continuously irradiate lung tissue.”

There hasn’t been an accident on the Curiosity mission. But the EIS acknowledged that there have been mishaps previously—in this spaceborne game of nuclear Russian roulette. Of the 26 earlier U.S. space missions that have used plutonium listed in the EIS, three underwent accidents, it admitted. The worst occurred in 1964 and involved, it noted, the SNAP-9A plutonium system aboard a satellite that failed to achieve orbit and dropped to Earth, disintegrating as it fell. The 2.1 pounds of Plutonium-238 fuel onboard dispersed widely over the Earth. Dr. John Gofman, professor of medical physics at the University of California at Berkeley, long linked this accident to an increase in global lung cancer. With the SNAP-9A accident, NASA switched to solar energy on satellites. Now all satellites and the International Space Station are solar powered.

The worst accident of several involving a Soviet or Russian nuclear space systems was the fall from orbit in 1978 of the Cosmos 954 satellite powered by a nuclear reactor. It also broke up in the atmosphere as it fell, spreading radioactive debris over 77,000 square miles of the Northwest Territories of Canada.

In 1996, the Russian Mars 96 space probe, energized with a half-pound of Plutonium-238 fuel, failed to break out of the Earth’s gravity and came down—as a fireball—over northern Chile. There was fall-out in Chile and neighboring Bolivia.

Initiatives in recent years to power spacecraft safely and cleanly include the launch by NASA last August 8th of a solar-powered space probe it calls Juno to Jupiter. NASA’s Juno website currently reports: “The spacecraft is in excellent health and is operating nominally.” It is flying at 35,200 miles per hour and is to reach Jupiter in 2016. Even at Jupiter, “nearly 500 million miles from the Sun,” notes NASA, its solar panels will be providing electricity. Waves

Solar power has also begun to be utilized to propel spacecraft through the friction-less vacuum of space. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in 2010 launched what it termed a “space yacht” called Ikaros which got propulsion from the pressure on its large sails from ionizing particles emitted by the Sun. The sails also feature “thin-film solar cells to generate electricity and creating,” said Yuichi Tsuda of the agency, “a hybrid technology of electricity and pressure.”

As to power for colonies on Mars and the Moon, on Mars, not only the sun is considered as a power source but also energy from the Martian winds. And, on the Moon, as The Daily Galaxy has reported: “NASA is eying the Moon’s south polar region as a possible site for future outposts. The location has many advantages; for one thing, there is evidence of water frozen in deep dark south polar craters. Water can be split into oxygen to breathe and hydrogen to burn as rocket fuel—or astronauts could simply drink it. NASA’s lunar architects are also looking for what they call ‘peaks of eternal light’—polar mountains where the sun never sets, which might be a perfect settings for a solar power station.”

Still, the pressure by promoters of nuclear energy on NASA and space agencies around the world to use atomic energy in space is intense—as is the drive of nuclear promoters on governments and the public for atomic energy on Earth.

Critically, nuclear power systems for space use must be fabricated on Earth—with all the dangers that involves, and launched from Earth—with all the dangers that involves (1 out of 100 rockets destruct on launch), and are subject to falling back to Earth and raining deadly radioactivity on human beings and other life on this planet.

Karl Grossman, professor of journalism at the State University of New York/College of New York, is the author of the book, The Wrong Stuff: The Space’s Program’s Nuclear Threat to Our Planet. Grossman is an associate of the media watch group Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR). He is a contributor to Hopeless: Barack Obama and the Politics of Illusion.”


(Quelle: Counterpunch.)

BRD: Atomkraft und Parteien

Montag, April 4th, 2011

“Wählertäuschung – 3 Monate, 7 Jahre oder 11 Jahre. Was ist schlimmer?

Von Horst Blume

Die Entscheidung der Bundesregierung, jetzt 7 Atomkraftwerke in der BRD für drei Monate lang abzuschalten, wirft Fragen auf. „Warum geht es plötzlich doch ohne Probleme mit weniger AKW? Lautete nicht ein Argument, dass ohne eine Laufzeitverlängerung die Energieversorgung gefährdet sei? Nun klappt es auf einmal auch, wenn nur noch zehn Atomkraftwerke Strom liefern. Und was steckt hinter dem doch sehr schnellen Handeln‘ (1)?

SPD und Grüne beschwerten sich bitterlich über schwarzgelbe Wahltaktik und Wählertäuschung vor den anstehenden Landtagswahlen und fragten vorwurfsvoll: Warum hat es nicht vorher mit dem AKW-Abschalten geklappt?

– Und warum nicht schon während der 7 Jahre rotgrüner Koalition (1998 – 2005) oder während der Zeit des geltenden „Atomausstiegs‘ (1998 – 2009), fragen wir Atomkraftwerksgegner! Warum geht plötzlich alles, was unter Rotgrün ganz und gar unmöglich war??

Mit den jetzigen rotgrünen Oppositionspolitikern beschweren sich also genau diejenigen, die es während ihrer eigenen Regierungszeit nicht einmal geschafft haben, ein einziges zusätzliches Atomkraftwerk stillzulegen!

Darüberhinaus hat im Jahre 2005 die rotgrüne NRW-Landesregierung der Erweiterung der Urananreicherungsanlage (UAA) Gronau von bisher 1.800 Tonnen Urantrennarbeit auf 4.500 Tonnen pro Jahr zugestimmt und auf 150 entstehende Arbeitsplätze verwiesen (2). Mit dem dort produzierten Brennstoff werden über 30 Atomkraftwerke in Europa beliefert. Wenn am Tschernobyl-Jahrestag (25. April 2011) auch Sozialdemokraten und Grüne in Gronau protestieren, demonstrieren sie gegen eine Nuklearanlage, für deren Erweiterung ihre eigenen NRW-Landtagsfraktionen gestimmt haben!

Desweiteren sei hier auf die ganz speziellen nordrheinwestfälischen Erfahrungen in Sachen Förderung von Hochtemperaturreaktoren unter einer rotgrünen NRW-Landesregierung und Bundesregierung gleichzeitig verwiesen. Beide Regierungen unterstützten mit Dutzenden von Millionen Euro aus dem Staatshaushalt nukleare Projekte, Studien und Untersuchungen an NRW-Versuchsanlagen in dem Forschungszentrum Jülich (3). Zahlreiche Protestbriefe und Fragenkataloge unserer Bürgerinitiative zu diesem Thema wurden von den rotgrünen Regierungen bis zu ein Jahr lang überhaupt nicht beantwortet, bis dann irgendwann ein nichtssagendes Schreiben eintrudelte (4). – Am 12. Juli 2004 wurde sogar die Weiterforschung an der Hochtemperaturtechnologie von der NRW-Landesregierung als „wertvoller Beitrag zu internationalen Sicherheit von HTR-Reaktoren‘ (5) bezeichnet!

Während Landesumweltministerin Bärbel Höhn im Forschungszentrum Jülich, in dem weiterhin an der gefährlichen Nukleartechnologie weitergeforscht wurde, ständig zu irgendwelchen Terminen ein- und ausging, war es für uns als Bürgerinitiative plötzlich völlig unmöglich, mit den feinen rotgrünen Damen und Herren auf der Regierungsbank irgendeinen Dialog zu führen. Wir wurden gänzlich abgeschrieben und mit ein paar Worthülsen abgespeist (6) ! Alle Ministerien mauerten ganz einfach. Selbst der Export deutscher Nukleartechnologie nach Südafrika für den PBMR ging weiter (7).

Während des angeblichen „Ausstiegs‘ gab es sogar Versuche von sozialdemokratischen und grünen Spitzenpolitikern, unter einer rotgrünen Regierung AKW-Laufzeiten wieder zu verlängern und Hochtemperaturreaktoren wieder bauen zu lassen!

Im Jahr 2001 propagierte Fritz Fahrenholt, als „Mitglied des Rates für nachhaltige Entwicklung beim Bundeskanzler‘ Schröder im „Vorwärts‘ eine verstärkte THTR-Forschung, um diese Reaktoren wieder bauen zu lassen (8). Im Jahr 2005 unterzeichnete das Grünen-Mitglied Frank Bsirke als Ver.di-Vorsitzender zusammen mit der rechtssozialdemokratisch ausgerichteten gelben „Gewerkschaft‘ IGBCE ein aufsehenerregendes Positionspapier, in dem längere AKW-Laufzeiten und sogar eine Rücknahme des lächerlichen Pseudoausstieges gefordert wurde (9).

Und nicht zu vergessen: Der sozialdemokratische Bundesumweltminister Gabriel war es, der es im Jahre 2008 ablehnte, in der Umgebung des THTR Hamm eine Kinderkrebsstudie in Auftrag zu geben (10)!

Es ist fast schon eine Binsenwahrheit: Vollmundige Versprechungen in der parlamentarischen Opposition und späteres Versagen in der Regierung sind bei Parteien zwei Seiten einer Medaille.

Mögen hunderte von Mitgliedern der Parteien aus ehrlicher Empörung und aus ehrlichem Wollen heraus für einen wirklichen Atomausstieg auf die Straßen gehen. – Auf der Regierungsbank vermasseln es die Parteioberen immer wieder gründlich und knicken vor der Atomlobby ein. Aus diesem Grund dürfen wir uns nicht auf die Versprechen von Parteien verlassen und sollten stattdessen auf unsere eigene Stärke bauen. Direkte Aktionen, ziviler Ungehorsam und Massenproteste machen den Regierungen Beine. Naive und gutgläubige Gefolgsleute erleichtern der Atomindustrie ihr Geschäft.

Die Vergangenheit zeigt: Wer sich von Rotgrün mit einer 30jährigen Bestandsgarantie für Atomkraftwerke abspeisen lässt, erhält später eine 42jährige Bestandsgarantie für AKW´s durch Schwarzgelb als Quittung.

Wer die offensichtliche 3-Monats-Täuschung der jetzigen Bundesregierung durchschaut hat, sollte mit dem gleichen kritischen Bewusstsein die rotgrüne nuklearpolitische Vergangenheit zur Kenntnis nehmen und besser durch eigenständiges politisches Handeln in Bürgerinitiativen für eine atomfreie Zukunft kämpfen.


Neues Deutschland vom 16.03.2011
THTR-Rundbrief Nr. 98 – März 2005
THTR-Rundbrief Nr. 92 – August 2004 – Kernkompetenz bleibt in Jülich
THTR-Rundbrief Nr. 89 – März 2004
THTR-Rundbrief Nr. 92 – August 2004 – NRW Landesregierung freut sich über HTR-Nuklearexport
THTR-Rundbrief Nr. 83 – Juli 2003
THTR-Rundbrief Nr. 101 – Oktober 2005
THTR-Rundbrief Nr. 71 – 2001 gab es damals leider nur offline
THTR-Rundbrief Nr. 102 – November 2005
THTR-Rundbrief Nr. 120 – März 2008



Polen: Mit Hilfe der USA und Frankreich zum Atomstaat

Freitag, Juli 23rd, 2010

“USA and France Help Poland Go Nuclear

By Petra Ramatowski

WARSAW (IDN) – Backed by the U.S. and France, Poland is set to tread the nuclear path and hopes to start generating atomic power by 2021. Presently, coal accounts for over 93 percent of the eastern European country’s electricity, demand for which is expected to double by 2025.

A four-stage plan announced by Hanna Trojanowska, the government’s Plenipotentiary for Nuclear Energy, envisages appropriate legislation by the end of 2010; site, technology and construction arrangements between 2011 and 2013; technical plans and site works in 2014 and 2015; and construction from 2016 to 2020.

An important step along the roadmap was taken on July 14, when the U.S. signed a joint declaration with the U.S. for cooperation in the field of nuclear energy. The signing of the agreement between Trojanowska and U.S. under secretary of commerce and international trade Francisco Sanchez followed a U.S. nuclear trade mission to Warsaw.

The declaration outlines the two governments’ intention to cooperate in the civil nuclear power area. Specifically, the governments seek to encourage their private sectors to participate in the construction of nuclear plants and supporting infrastructure; to foster scientific research and development works to make nuclear solutions safe, effective, economical and friendly for the environment; and to promote fair, open, and transparent tender procedures in the nuclear energy sectors in their respective countries.

The declaration also noted the intent to cooperate in the development of human resources for the civilian nuclear energy sector.

Sanchez led a mission to Poland on July 12 and 13 July of representatives of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Department of State, as well as senior executives from ten U.S. suppliers of nuclear technology, equipment and services. The purpose of the mission’s Warsaw visit was to highlight how American technologies, services and experience could help Poland achieve its plans to establish a nuclear power program, reports World Nuclear News (WNN).

Sanchez commented: ‘Signing the joint declaration underscores the importance the U.S. government places on supporting the development of Poland’s civilian nuclear energy infrastructure.’ He added: ‘U.S. nuclear energy technology suppliers can make a vital contribution in the realization of Poland’s nuclear power program.’

Waldemar Pawlak, Poland’s economy minister and deputy prime minister, said, ‘Development of nuclear energy will be an important component of Poland’s energy balance.’ He added: ‘We have a preliminary list of locations, (and) developing a legal framework for this enormous investment.’

A proposed roadmap for nuclear energy was unveiled by the Polish government in August 2009, setting out the steps it will take with the aim of generating nuclear power by 2020.

By the end of 2010, Polish leaders want to have drafted the legislation required to give a stable framework for nuclear liability as well as power plant construction and operation. At the same time it will develop training programs and establish research facilities and institutions for nuclear energy.

These will be under the domain of a forthcoming National Atomic Energy Agency. It is hoped that a consortium to actually build the first nuclear power plant will be formed.

Locations for the power plant are to be identified between 2011 and the end of 2014, with a final decision taken towards the end of the period. By this time, the building consortium should have sourced its finance and selected the reactor technology it wants.

State-owned Polska Grupa Energetyczna SA (PGE) has previously said it would like to build two nuclear power plants, each with a capacity of 3000 MWe — two or three large reactors each. One potential site would be the northern town of Zarnowiec, where four Russian VVER-440 pressurized water reactors began construction only to be cancelled in 1990.

The U.S.-Poland agreement was signed with six months of a joint declaration on energy, environment and climate between France and Poland on November 6, 2009

The declaration was signed in Paris by French President Nicolas Sarkozy and Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk. The cooperation, a statement said, was aimed at ‘increasing the energy security of the European Union (EU) through technological and geographical diversification of its energy mix and increasing energy efficiency to combat climate change.’

Under the declaration, France and Poland agreed to cooperate in the promotion of the development of nuclear power in Poland, as set out in the country’s energy policy up to 2030. The two nations reaffirmed that the introduction of nuclear energy into Poland must be in compliance with the highest standards in safety, security, non-proliferation and preservation of the environment, especially with regards to the management of radioactive waste.

Poland and France agreed to encourage cooperation in training and research and development in the field of nuclear. The two countries noted the satisfactory conclusion of an agreement between France’s Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and a consortium of Polish research institutes.

Under that agreement, a training program was recently launched in France for Polish universities. In addition, Agence France Nucléaire International (AFNI) has held discussions with Polish authorities about creating the best system for training personnel for the Polish nuclear energy industry.

France has agreed to provide technical assistance to state-owned utility Polska Grupa Energetyczna SA PGE in bringing a nuclear power plant into operation by 2020, as mandated by the government in its energy policy.

Tusk said France was becoming a key partner for Poland when it comes to the future of nuclear energy.

Poland has the largest reserves of coal in the EU (14 billion tonnes), and some 93 percent of its electricity is generated by coal-fired plants. Poland’s electricity consumption is forecast to grow by 90 percent to 2025, but the EU has placed stringent restrictions on CO2 emissions. A roadmap for nuclear energy was unveiled by the Polish government in August 2009, setting out the steps it will take with the aim of generating nuclear power before 2021. (IDN-InDepthNews/17.07.2010)

Copyright © 2010 IDN-InDepthNews | Analysis That Matters”


(Quelle: InDepthNews.)

Nachrichten-Überblick 22.07.2010

Donnerstag, Juli 22nd, 2010

[22.07.2010 – 09:59]


* BRD: “I’m not a pirate – I’m a fisherman”

Zehn Jungen und Männern aus Somalia soll wegen Angriffs auf den Seeverkehr sowie versuchten erpresserischen Menschenraubs vor dem Landgericht Hamburg der erste Piratenprozess seit 400 Jahren gemacht werden.


* HAITI: Wiederaufbau in Eigenregie als einzige Chance

It appears that Haiti’s “15 minutes of fame” are up. With few exceptions, the journalists who flooded the zone following the earthquake are nowhere to be seen. And the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee’s harsh criticism of the rebuilding effort six months after the earthquake is a sign that patience is wearing thin. Meanwhile, the lives of Haitians on the ground are still appalling — over a million in tent cities and squatter villages, rain flooding their streets, rape on the rise, too many basic services not restored.


* MALAYSIA: Debate on Sex Education Rises with Teen Pregnancies

The prospect of motherhood filled 17-year-old Fatimah’s heart with dread.


* BOTSWANA: Wasser ist kein Menschenrecht

San bushmen in Botswana have lost a court case to allow them to re-open a vital waterhole in the centre of the Kalahari desert. Diamonds were found in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, traditional home to the bushmen, in the 1980s – and the government asked them to leave.


* COSTA RICA: Die USA bringen sich in ihrem “Hinterhof” in Stellung

With votes secured from the official National Liberation Party (PLN), the Libertarian Movement, and Justo Orozco, the evangelical congressman from the Costa Rican Renovation party, on July 1st, the Costa Rican Congress authorized the entry into that country of 46 warships from the U.S. Navy, 200 helicopters and combat aircraft and 7,000 Marines.


* AFRIKA: “Marktwirtschaft” zerstört kleinbäuerliche Landwirtschaft

As evidenced by USAID administrator Rajiv Shah’s recent speech to the US Global Leadership Coalition (USGLC), the US and the Green Revolution’s ‘solutions’ for African agriculture remain more of the same, rooted in a corporate-funded, GMO-oriented and market-based system designed entirely in the interests of Western business. While US development aid fasts becomes simply ‘an investment subsidised by US taxpayers with high returns for US corporations’, African farmers’ groups such as COPAGEN, LEISA and PELUM continue to organise in defence of self-determination and genetic biodiversity, writes Richard Jonasse.


* GROSSBRITANNIEN: Vor dem Irak-Krieg wurden Märchen erzählt

Britische Geheimdienstchefin bestätigt, dass Saddam Hussein keine Bedrohung darstellte und mit den Anschlägen vom 11.9. nichts zu tun hatte.


* GLOBAL: Tödlicher Staub – der globale Handel mit Asbest

A global network of lobby groups has spent nearly $100 million since the mid-1980s to preserve the international market for asbestos, a known carcinogen that’s taken millions of lives and is banned or restricted in 52 countries, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists has found in a nine-month investigation.


* ISRAEL: Neues Raketenabwehrsystem erfolgreich getestet

“Iron Dome” soll Raketen-Angriffe aus Gaza und dem Südlibanon abwehren. Kritiker bemängeln die Reichweite.


* MALAYSIA: Indigene Frauen Vergewaltigungsopfer der Holfäller-Mafia

A new report has exposed an ‘environment of violence’ against tribeswomen in Borneo. According to the report, released by a coalition of Malaysian human rights groups called the Penan Support Group, there have been repeated cases of rape and sexual assault against Penan women by the loggers who are destroying the tribe’s forests.


* MONGOLEI: Ist die Kultur der NomadInnen am Ende?

Herders leave the steppe after losing a fifth of their livestock. Now foreign firms are to exploit Mongolia’s vast resources.


* PAZIFIK: Kleine Inselstaaten drängen zur Eile bei Klimafinanzierung

Die Vereinten Nationen haben in diesem Jahr zwar eine hochkarätige Gruppe für die Finanzierung der Maßnahmen zur Bekämpfung und Anpassung des Klimawandels ins Leben gerufen. Doch die kleinen unmittelbar von der Erderwärmung bedrohten Inselstaaten im Pazifik fürchten, dass ihnen auch mit einem solchen Gremium die notwendigen Gelder nicht rechtzeitig zufließen werden.


* BRD: Tod und Verwundung treffen Bundeswehr

Auf ihrem Internet-Portal kündigt die Bundeswehr am 20. Juli 2010 ein Arbeitspapier zum “Umgang mit Verwundung, Tod und Trauer im Einsatz” an, dass “Mitte August” von Bundeswehrangehörigen im Intranet der Bundeswehr eingesehen werden kann.


* REPUBLIK SÜDAFRIKA: Militärpolizei zum Schutz der MigrantInnen

South Africa’s military joined police on Tuesday to patrol a Johannesburg township after assaults on foreign migrants injured at least 11 and increased concerns of a fresh wave of xenophobic attacks.


* EU: “Kleiner Kreis entscheidet über die Zukunft der Landwirtschaft in Europa”

Das Europäische Patentamt muss eine Grundsatzentscheidung über die Patentierbarkeit von Pflanzen treffen.


* NIGERIA: Ölquelle von ExxonMobil leck…

Fishermen in Ibeno, Southern Akwa Ibom, said they have reported the discharge of liquid suspected to be crude oil at the Qua Iboe oil fields in the Atlantic Ocean. Chief Inyang Ekong, the Secretary of the Artisan Fishermen Association of Nigeria in Akwa Ibom disclosed this to the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) in Ibeno, Akwa Ibom.
Ekong said that some fishermen noticed the discharge near the offshore oil production platforms operated by Mobil Producing Nigeria, an affiliate of the U.S. oil firm, ExxonMobil.


* KANADA: Regierung verabschiedet sich leise von der Biodiversitäts-Konvention

The spirit of international negotiations in Montreal on a draft protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) of natural resources were marred by Canada’s insistence on a decentralised approach to ABS, Peigi Wilson, a Métis lawyer present at the meeting in support of the Quebec Native Women.



[Update: 12:14]

* BURKINA FASO / NIGER: Grenzfrage soll friedlich entschieden werden

The West African countries of Burkina Faso and Niger have submitted a dispute over their common border to the United Nations International Court of Justice (ICJ) as part of a wider agreement by the two States to resolve the situation peacefully.


* USA: Bald nanotechnologisch veränderte Lebensmittel?

Nanotechnology involves the ability to control matter at the scale of a nanometer—one billionth of a meter. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015.


* BOLIVIEN: Neue Verfassung

Letztes Rahmengesetz verabschiedet: Verfassungsreform kann umgesetzt werden. Blockaden der Opposition blieben ohne Wirkung.


* MEXIKO: US-Bank Wachovia hilft bei Drogengeldwäsche

The bank, now a unit of Wells Fargo, leads a list of firms that have moved dirty money for Mexico’s narcotics cartels–helping a $39 billion trade that has killed more than 22,000 people since 2006.


* SOMALIA: Der “Krieg gegen den Terror” bedroht nicht nur Uganda

The U.S. war against Somalia expands outwards and “has now blown back to Uganda,” the U.S. ally that, “along with the minority Tutsi dictatorship in Rwanda, is America’s most reliable mercenary force in Black Africa.” Ethiopia and Kenya prepare to join Uganda in an offensive against the Somali resistance, to save America’s puppet mini-state in Mogadishu.


* BRASILIEN: Hat sich die Landlosenbewegung von Lula kaufen lassen?

Tagelang herrschte Verwirrung auf allen Seiten rund um den parlamentarischen Untersuchungsausschuss zur öffentlichen Finanzierung der Landlosenbewegung MST. Für die Regierung war die Arbeit des Ausschusses mit dem Stichtag 17. Juli beendet. Nicht so für die Opposition, die mit einem überraschenden Schachzug in letzter Minute die Verlängerung des Ausschusses um weitere sechs Monate durchsetzte. Mitten im Wahlkampf um die Nachfolge von Präsident Lula da Silva könnte die regierende Arbeiterpartei PT damit ein Problem bekommen. Der Ausschuss war Ende letzten Jahres auf Drängen der Opposition eingerichtet worden, um die öffentliche Finanzierung des MST durch die Regierung zu untersuchen.


* GAZA: Wer hat das Licht ausgemacht?

The Gaza Strip presently experiences 8-12 hours of scheduled power outages per day, which disrupt the normal functioning of humanitarian infrastructure, including health and education institutions and water and sewage systems, as well as the agricultural sector. The power outages also take a toll in human lives of people killed or injured by using generators, which are brought into Gaza through the tunnels, are of poor quality, and are not always used according to safety instructions. How was this shortage created and what can be done to resolve it?

Weiterlesen… (PDF)

* KASCHMIR: Brutale Gewalt durch indische Truppen

Indian troops and police have killed fifteen people in Kashmir since June, sparking widespread protests. The Indian government has imposed a strict military curfew in the area as well as a media gag order on local journalists. The international community has remained silent on the human rights abuses in Kashmir.


* GLOBAL: Krieg gegen die Erde

If you live on the Gulf Coast, welcome to the real world of oil — and just know that you’re not alone. In the Niger Delta and the Ecuadorian Amazon, among other places, your emerging hell has been the living hell of local populations for decades.


* USA: Krieg gegen den Terror kostet bislang 1 Billion US-Dollar

A Congressional Research Service report on the costs of America’s assorted wars has put the global war on terror since September 11, 2001 at over $1 trillion, making it the second most expensive military action in American history, adjusting for inflation.


* BRD: Gegen höhere Schutzstandards beim Asylrecht

Deutschland blockiert aus Sorge vor einer vermeintlichen «Sogwirkung» den Aufbau eines europäischen Asylsystems. Dies machte Innenstaatssekretär Ole Schröder am Donnerstag auf einem EU-Justiz- und Innenministertreffens in Brüssel klar. (…) Die von der EU-Kommission vorgeschlagenen höheren Rechtsschutzstandards würden die deutsche Praxis der Schnellabschiebungen an Flughäfen aber «aushöhlen», sagte der CDU-Politiker.


* JORDANIEN: Stimmungsmache gegen PalästinenserInnen

Robert Fisk: Why Jordan is occupied by Palestinians
A powerful group of ex-army leaders say their country is being overrun – and they blame King Abdullah.


* GLOBAL: Menschen hungern, weil zu wenig Nahrung produziert wird! – Ach, wirklich?

2008, the world witnessed an unprecedented food crisis. Food prices skyrocketed, and staple food disappeared from the market shelves. The resulting tremors were felt across the globe, with some 37 countries facing food riots.
Was the food crisis an outcome of the drought in Australia? Or was it because wheat production had fallen? Or was it because quite a sizable area under foodgrains had been diverted for biofuel production? The world had debated these options, but what emerged clearly was that much of it was triggered because of speculation in the futures trade. In fact, it was much worse than what was earlier anticipated.


* NAHER / MITTLERER OSTEN: Run auf die Atomkraft (und damit auf Atomwaffen)

“Saudi Arabia’s decision last week to sign a nuclear cooperation pact with France marks a major step forward for a pan-Arab drive toward nuclear power,” reports UPI. “All told, 13 Middle Eastern states, including Egypt, have announced plans — or dusted off old plans — to build nuclear power stations since 2006. All say they have no intention of seeking to develop nuclear weapons. But there is concern that once they’ve mastered the technology they’ll seek to counter Iran’s alleged push to acquire such weapons by doing so themselves.”


* KAMBODSCHA: SexarbeiterInnen werden illegal festgenommen und inhaftiert

Die kambodschanische Regierung soll umgehend Maßnahmen einleiten, um die Gewalt gegen SexarbeiterInnen zu beenden sowie die Regierungseinrichtungen schließen, in denen die Betroffenen illegal inhaftiert und missbraucht wurden, so Human Rights Watch.


* BRD: Schützenhilfe für die Atomindustrie

Die Ärzteorganisation IPPNW kritisiert die heute von der Universität Mainz der Presse vorgestellte Studie “Kinder und Kernkraft” (KuK-Studie) zu angeborenen Fehlbildungen in der Umgebung von Atomkraftwerken als argumentative Schützenhilfe zu Gunsten der Atomindustrie. Die Mainzer Studie hat aufgrund geringer Fallzahlen eine zu geringe statistische Nachweisstärke (power), um einen Effekt in ähnlicher Größenordnung wie in der vorangegangenen Studie zu Kinderkrebs um Atomkraftwerke (KiKK-Studie) nachzuweisen.


* LIBANON: Frauen-Hilfsschiff will Gaza-Blockade durchbrechen

The ‘Maryam’, an all-female Lebanese aid ship, currently docked in the northern Lebanese port of Tripoli, is getting ready to set sail for Gaza in the next few days. The ship, which aims to break Israel’s siege on the Palestinian territory, will carry about 50 aid workers, including some U.S. nuns keen to deliver aid to the long-suffering women and children of Gaza.



[Update: 14:17]

* AFGHANISTAN: Kein Zutrauen ins Parlament

Afghans Disillusioned with Candidate Choice. Most current parliamentarians plan to stand again, despite widespread public mistrust and disappointment.


* GLOBAL: Funktioniert das Wirtschaftssystem ohne Wachstum?

Is De-Growth Compatible with Capitalism? A serious campaign in favor of “de-growth” has been going on for some time and has made important contributions. This movement has opened new avenues for debate and analysis on technology, credit, education and other important areas. It’s an effort that needs support and attention, and we must applaud their initiators and promoters for their boldness and dedication.


* ECUADOR:: Regierungskritische Positionen der Indigenen Völker

On July 5, I sat down with Marlon Santi, President of the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE), in his office in Quito. We discussed the increasing contradictions between the demands of the indigenous movement, on the one hand, around water rights and anti-mining resistance, and the positions of the government of Rafael Correa, on the other, which has labelled indigenous resistance to large-scale mining and oil exploitation as “terrorism and sabotage.”


* DACH: Antimuslimische Ressentiments

Die westliche Zivilisation wird in deutschsprachigen Zeitungen von Leuten wie Broder und Sarazin verteidigt, als ob SIE wieder vor Wien ständen. Die barbarischen Seiten des Westens werden beim Islam-Bashing gerne und schnell unter den Teppich gekehrt. Die deutsche Integrationspolitik schrumpft über die Symbolpolitik à la Islamkonferenz auf religiöse Fragen zusammen, Aspekte von sozialer Ungleichheit werden ausgeklammert.


* USA: Kritik an Obamas Gesetz zur Finanzmarktreform

“In den USA ist die größte Finanzmarktreform seit der Weltwirtschaftskrise in den 30er Jahren beschlossen worden”, schreibt die taz. Klingt groß, heißt wenig: die US-Finanz-Gesetzgebung ist seit Ende der 1960er Jahre eine Geschichte der De-Regulierung. Selbst diesmal konnte die Finanzlobby wichtige Regeln abschwächen – wie die taz an anderer Stelle kritisch berichtet.
Die US-Reform wird häufig als Erfolg der Politik bewertet – aber selbst angesichts der dramatischen Krise konnte die Finanzbranche durch massive Lobbyarbeit das “Dodd-Frank Financial Reform Bill” an wichtigen Stellen verwässern. So gibt es zahlreiche kritische Einschätzungen.


* INDONESIEN: Weltbank finanziert zerstörerische Nickel-Mine

An international civil society coalition today condemned the World Bank for approving support for a destructive nickel mine that would displace Indigenous Peoples, destroy vast areas of intact tropical forest, and threaten rivers and the ocean with sediment and toxic chemicals.


* USA: Historiker warnt vor dem plötzlichen Zusammenbruch des “US-Imperiums”

Der Harvard-Professor und erfolgreiche Autor Niall Ferguson eröffnete am Montag das Festival der Ideen 2010 des Aspen-Institutes mit der ernst gemeinten Warnung, wegen seiner ständig steigenden Verschuldung werde ein plötzlicher Zusammenbruch des “US-Imperiums” immer wahrscheinlicher.
“Ich denke, dass dieses Problem sehr bald eintritt,” sagte Ferguson. “Damit meine ich innerhalb der
nächsten zwei Jahre, weil sich die Situation finanziell und in anderer Hinsicht immer mehr dem Chaos nähert. Wir haben gerade in Griechenland erlebt, was geschieht, wenn der Kapitalmarkt das Vertrauen in die Finanzpolitik eines Landes verliert.” Ferguson erinnerte daran, dass Imperien – wie die ehemalige Sowjetunion und das römische Reich – ganz schnell kollabieren können und der Wendepunkt häufig dann eintritt, wenn die Zinsen für die Schulden eines Imperiums höher werden als seine Verteidigungsausgaben.


* INDIEN: Diplomatische Verrenkungen beim Atomwaffensprerrvertrag

The recently concluded Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference (RevCon) has renewed the call for the universalisation of the treaty. The NPT RevCon has asked India along with Pakistan and Israel – the three non-signatory states to the NPT- to unilaterally disarm and join the treaty as Non-Nuclear Weapon States (NNWS). However, India possesses nuclear weapons.


* RUSSLAND: Umweltschützer verhindern Wald-Rodung

Die russischen UmweltschützerInnen, die zu Dutzenden, teilweise sogar mit 300 Personen die Rodungsarbeiten in der Nähe des Moskauer Flughafens Scheremetjewo behindert haben, haben die Rodungen – vorerst – verhindert.


* GUATEMALA: Königsgrab der Maya entdeckt

Luftdicht verschlossene Grabkammer konservierte prächtige Grabbeigaben und Knochen. Ein bisher unbekanntes Königsgrab der Maya haben ArchäologInnen in der Maya-Stadt El Zotz im Dschungel Guatemalas entdeckt. Es enthielt ungewöhnlich gut erhaltene, 1.600 Jahre alte Schnitzereien, Keramiken und Stoffe sowie die Knochen von einem Erwachsenen und sechs möglicherweise geopferten Kindern. Das prächtig ausgestattete Grab gehört wahrscheinlich einem Herrscher, möglicherweise dem Gründer einer Dynastie der präklassischen Maya.


* GROSSBRITANNIEN: Kriegsdienstverweigernder Soldat aus Haft entlassen

Joe Glenton, the soldier who refused to return to fight in Afghanistan and who spoke out against the war, was released from military prison.


* VIETNAM: Einbürgerung von Flüchtlingen aus Kambodscha

Ho-Chi-Minh-Stadt – Mit einem Festakt hat die vietnamesische Regierung 287 ehemalige Flüchtlinge aus Kambodscha eingebürgert. UNHCR begrüßt diesen Schritt außerordentlich. Vietnam gibt dadurch ein wichtiges Signal, die Staatenlosigkeit für insgesamt mehr als 2.300 ehemalige Flüchtlinge aus Kambodscha endgültig ad acta zu legen. Die meisten Kambodschaner waren 1975 vor Pol Pots blutigem Regime nach Vietnam geflohen.


* KIRGISIEN: “Millionär werden, das ist Demokratie!”

In Kirgistan trägt die Marktwirtschaft ganz eigene Züge: Nach dem Ende der “Sozialistischen Sowjetrepublik” wurden Fettschwanzschafe, Wallnussbäume und Spitzmorcheln privatisiert. Seitdem greifen viele Kirgisen uralte Nomadentraditionen wieder auf: Sie pendeln auf dem Pferd zwischen Wäldern, Wiesen und Hochalmen und leben im Sommer in Jurten. Das klingt romantisch, doch die meisten Kirgisen müssen heute ums Überleben kämpfen oder erinnern sich wehmütig an die Sowjetzeit mit ihren großen Betrieben und festen Arbeitsplätzen. Andere sind weniger nostalgisch: „Jetzt kann jeder Millionär werden, das ist Demokratie“, lobt ausgerechnet die bettelarme Gulnara, deren Familie allein vom Erlös gesammelter Nüsse lebt.


* AFGHANISTAN: Unendliche Besatzung?

The international foreign ministers conference held in Kabul Tuesday formally endorsed President Hamid Karzai’s proposed 2014 target for Afghan forces to assume the lead responsibility for the country’s security, while acknowledging that the foreign occupation will continue indefinitely.


* BRD: Niebels Zaudern im Kampf gegen AIDS

Der Entwicklungshilfeminister gefährdet die internationale Aids-Hilfe. Deutschland könnte als drittgrößter Geldgeber bald ausfallen. Ein fatales Signal, meint H. Albrecht.


* ZENTRALAFRIKANISCHE REPUBLIK: Friedensprozess gerät ins Stocken

A Sudanese led rebel faction in the Central African Republic has engaged the armies of the Central African Republic (CAR) over a disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) process- under a peace agreement signed ahead of national elections in CAR, military and rebel sources said.


* USA: Die Wiederkehr der Sklaverei

For the first time, the U.S. government acknowledges modern-day slavery in the United States.
One-hundred-and-fifty years after the abolition of slavery, the State Department has acknowledged that people in the United States continue to be bought and sold as property. The department’s 2010 “Trafficking in Persons” (TIP) report, a global review of human trafficking and civic and legal responses to it, lists the United States for the first time among the nations that harbor modern-day slavery.


USA: Viel Atommüll, noch mehr Atommüll…

Mittwoch, Juli 14th, 2010

“U.S. plutonium waste underestimated, says researcher


Photo: Great Beyond/Flickr

The United States has about three times more waste plutonium than the last official government estimate released 14 years ago, said Robert Alvarez, senior scholar at the Institute for Policy Studies.

Hanford has been responsible for about a third of the waste, and much of it remains there, according to Alvarez’s calculations.

The last official estimate of plutonium waste nationwide was 3.7 tons. But Alvarez said a better preliminary estimate is about nearly 14 tons, with about 4.4 tons at Hanford, which produced plutonium for the nation’s nuclear weapons program.

‘I was very surprised at the inventory of plutonium waste at Hanford,’ he said.

He plans to publish his findings, which are based on a review of government reports and data, in Science and Global Security, a peer-reviewed journal published by Princeton University. Alvarez was a senior policy adviser at the Department of Energy during the Clinton administration.

Plutonium waste at Hanford includes plutonium mixed in the 53 million gallons of waste held in underground tanks. The worst of that waste will be treated at the $12.3 billion vitrification plant now under construction.

It also includes suspected plutonium-contaminated waste that temporarily was buried in central Hanford starting in 1970 until DOE had a national repository for the waste. Congress ordered that such waste, called transuranic waste, be disposed of a national repository starting that year.

Enough waste to fill 72,000 55-gallon drums temporarily was buried and about two-thirds of it has been dug up. Waste that proves contaminated with plutonium at high enough levels to be classified as transuranic is being shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico, the nation’s repository for transuranic waste.

Alvarez estimates the stored or buried transuranic waste that has been or will be sent to New Mexico accounts for about half of Hanford’s plutonium waste.

But Hanford also has plutonium-contaminated waste buried before 1970 and plutonium-contaminated liquids that were discharged into the soils in central Hanford.

‘A lot of this is going to be hard to retrieve,’ Alvarez said.

DOE has concentrated its efforts in recent years on cleaning up Hanford contamination along the Columbia River, and work is in early stages now to come up with a cleanup plan for central Hanford, where much of the plutonium waste is.

That includes characterization of waste in old burial trenches and in the soil by methods such as drilling, sampling and ground-penetrating radar. The data will be used to develop a proposal that will be reviewed by Hanford regulators, the tribes and the public before a decision is made on how to clean up the waste, according to DOE.

Any decision will be based on actual data, not estimates, said DOE spokesman Geoff Tyree.

‘DOE headquarters is checking the report to see if it offers new information,’ DOE said in a written statement. ‘This doesn’t appear to alter our approach to cleanup.’

The DOE Office of Environmental Management has asked an independent technical review board made up of scientists from the national laboratories and DOE offices of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration to do a more comprehensive examination of Alvarez’s estimates. That’s normal protocol for outside reports, Tyree said.

DOE already is concerned about discharges of radioactive waste to the soil in central Hanford. It’s not practical to excavate more than 60 feet below the ground’s surface but in central Hanford some contamination is as much as 300 feet deep.

DOE has proposed launching a field research center at Hanford in early 2011 to tackle the problem.

Liquid discharges from the Plutonium Finishing Plant until 1973, when discharges began to be routed to Hanford’s underground waste tanks, are of particular concern to Alvarez. He believes plutonium has penetrated deep underground at high rates.

Because of solvents and salts in the liquid, plutonium may have traveled deeper than anticipated, instead of adhering to the soil closer to the ground level, he said.

Alvarez believes levels of plutonium will become the reference contaminant for central Hanford, determining cleanup standards there.

Officials with the state of Washington, a regulator on Hanford work, were on furlough Monday and not available to comment.

Estimates of plutonium waste increased since 1996 for three reasons, Alvarez said in his study. In some cases residual plutonium left at sites such as Hanford was reclassified as waste because the nation no longer needed to gather and process the residual plutonium for the weapons program.

With Hanford tank waste, better characterization by DOE showed the tanks contained about twice the plutonium estimated in 1996.

In addition, DOE did not have measurement technologies when plutonium production began that are as accurate as those used today.

Many of Alvarez’s estimates were based on data DOE collected as part of a comprehensive draft study on tank waste, the Draft Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement released in late October, Tyree said.

— Annette Cary: 582-1533;; More Hanford news at hanfordnews. com.”


(Quelle: Northwest News.)

USA: Weg vom Öl – hin zur Atomkraft!

Donnerstag, Juni 17th, 2010

“U.S. Energy Policy Creating a New Generation of Dr. Strangeloves

By Alice Slater, June 8, 2010

President Eisenhower is well-remembered for warning the public in his final address to the nation to ‘guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence . . . by the military-industrial complex.’ But it is little known that Eisenhower, in that same speech further cautioned that ‘we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite.’

In May, U.S. Secretary of Energy Steve Chu announced that 42 university-led nuclear research and development projects would receive $38 million through the Department of Energy’s ‘Nuclear Energy University Program’ designed to help advance nuclear education and develop the next generations of nuclear technologies. ‘We are taking action to restart the nuclear industry as part of a broad approach to cut carbon pollution and create new clean energy jobs,’ said Secretary Chu. ‘These projects will help us develop the nuclear technologies of the future and move our domestic nuclear industry forward.

At a time when the United States should be creating a new Manhattan Project for safe, clean, green energy from the sun, wind, and tides, the Obama administration is trying to recreate the old Manhattan project, training our best and brightest to continue to wreak havoc on the planet with nuclear know-how. Instead of letting the old nuclear complex rust in peace, the government is proactively taking the initiative to create a whole new generation of Dr. Strangeloves, enticing young people to study these dark arts by putting up millions of precious dollars for nuclear programs and scholarships.

What a disappointment that Dr. Chu, a Nobel laureate scientist, appointed by Obama for ‘change we can believe in’, represents the old paradigm of top-down, hierarchical, secret nuclear science. It’s just so 20th century! Chu has apparently ignored the myriad studies that show that dollar-for-dollar, nuclear power is one of the most expensive ways to meet energy needs, when lifecycle costs are compared to solar, wind, geothermal, appropriate hydropower and biomass, as well as efficiency measures. This is also true for reducing carbon emissions, as expensive nuclear power would actually exacerbate catastrophic climate change since less carbon emission is prevented per dollar spent on costly nuclear technology compared to applying those funds to clean energy sources and efficiency.

Further, countless studies, including recent reports from three communities in Germany with nuclear reactors, indicate that there are higher incidences of cancer, leukemia and birth defects in communities with toxic nuclear power plants that pollute the air, water, and soil in the course of routine operations. And a recent report from the New York Academy of Sciences, by distinguished Russian scientists, finds that deaths from the disastrous accident at Chernobyl now number over 900,000. Dr. Chu, a nuclear physicist, is well aware that the radioactive byproducts of nuclear power will remain toxic for 250,000 years and that there is no known solution to safely store this lethal brew for the eons it will threaten human health and the environment.

Americans should oppose any further funding for this failed, dangerous technology as well as the inordinate subsidies presently planned for the nuclear industry. It’s time to invest in a clean energy future that will create millions of jobs and enable the US to earn an honest dollar by developing desirable new technology to offer to the world. Instead we will be providing a growing number of countries the wherewithal and technical know-how with which to make a nuclear bomb, while subjecting their communities to the consequences of toxic radiation.

Alice Slater is the New York Director of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation and a contributor to Foreign Policy In Focus.”


(Quelle: Foreign Policy in Focus.)