Posts Tagged ‘Finnland’

Global: You gotta move?

Mittwoch, September 25th, 2013

“Nur 3,2 Prozent aller Menschen sind aus ihrem Geburtsland ausgewandert

Nach UN-Schätzungen wandern nicht mehr Menschen aus dem globalen Süden in den reichen Norden als in ein anderes Entwicklungsland, 90 Prozent der Flüchtlinge leben in Entwicklungsländern

Von Florian Rötzer | 24.09.2013

Globalisierung, so könnte man meinen, ist nicht nur die globale Bewegung von Gütern, Vermögen und Informationen, sondern auch der Menschen, die zu Migranten werden. Interessant ist, dass sich zwar viele Menschen zeitweise als Touristen oder beruflich über Grenzen hinweg reisen, aber dass die Migration weiterhin ein ziemlich kleines Phänomen ist.



Durchschnittliche Veränderungsrate der internationalen Migration in Prozent.

Durchschnittliche Veränderungsrate der internationalen Migration in Prozent.

Gerade einmal 3,2 Prozent der Menschheit, das sind 232 Millionen Menschen, leben in Ländern, in denen sie nicht geboren wurden, so der UN-Bericht International Migration 2013[1]. Das ist überraschend wenig, wenn auch 33 Prozent mehr als 2000, zumal die reichen Länder sich in Festungen, in gated nations, verwandeln, um die fantasierten Migrationsströme abzuwehren, die in Krisen wie jetzt beispielsweise im syrischen Bürgerkrieg in die nicht sonderlich reichen Nachbarländer Jordanien, Libanon oder den Irak, aber natürlich auch in die Türkei gelangen. Flüchtlinge machen 2013 mit 15,7 Millionen oder 7 Prozent nur einen kleinen Teil der Migranten aus. Fast 90 Prozent davon leben in Entwicklungsländern!

60 Prozent der internationalen Migranten, zwei Drittel im arbeitsfähigen Alter zwischen 20 und 64 Jahren, weit mehr als die 58 Prozent im weltweiten Durchschnitt, leben in den reichen Ländern des Nordens. 2013 am meisten in den USA, gefolgt von Russland, Deutschland – das wirklich als Einwanderungsland gelten muss -, Saudi-Arabien, die Vereinten Arabischen Emirate, Großbritannien, Frankreich, Kanada, Australien und Spanien. Hingegen sind in Europa Portugal, Polen, Finnland oder Norwegen nicht so interessant.

 

 

Schaut man auf den prozentualen Anteil internationaler Migranten an der Gesamtbevölkerung, dann ist deren Anteil etwa in den USA, Kanada, in der Ukraine, in Saudi-Arabien, Libyen, Australien, Deutschland. Österreich, Schweiz, Frankreich, Belgien oder Norwegen höher als 10 Prozent. In Steueroasen wie Andorra, San Marino oder Monaco ist der Ausländeranteil natürlich wesentlich höher, im Vatikan steigt er sogar auf 100 Prozent. Global leben allerdings zwei Drittel der internationalen Migranten ziemlich gleich verteilt in Europa und in Asien. In China, Indien und einigen afrikanischen Ländern, aber auch in Mexiko oder erstaunlicherweise Brasilien haben Migranten nur einen Anteil von weniger als einem Prozent. Allerdings ist der Eindruck nach den UN-Schätzungen falsch, dass die überwiegende Mehrzahl Migranten aus armen Entwicklungsländern in die reichen Länder auswandert, was man auch Süd-Nord-Migration nennt. Auch wenn in den Industrieländern die Migranten einen durchschnittlichen Anteil von 11 Prozent der Gesamtbevölkerung stellen und in den Entwicklungsländern nur 2 Prozent, aber die Unterschiede sind hier groß, so täuscht der Eindruck.

 

 

Nach neuen Schätzungen, die Geburtsland und Zielland der Migranten einbeziehen, war die Süd-Süd-Migration 1990 am stärksten ausgeprägt. Danach wusch der Anteil der Süd-Nord-Migration stärker, ab 2000 lag die Süd-Nord-Migration in etwa gleich mit der Süd-Süd-Migration, wobei allerdings die Migration vom Süden in den Süden wieder etwas stärker wuchs als die vom Süden in den Norden. 2013 sollen nach den Schätzungen 82,3 Millionen, die in Entwicklungsländern geboren wurden, in anderen Ländern des globalen Süden leben, während mit 81,9 Millionen fast genau so viel aus dem Süden in den Norden abgewandert sind. Die meisten dieser Migranten stammen aus Asien, gefolgt von Menschen aus Lateinamerika. Aus dem Norden in den globalen Süden wandern hingegen nur 13,7 Millionen aus, von Norden nach Norden sind es 53,7 Millionen.

Die “Süd-Süd-Migration” könnte man dadurch erklären, dass Auswanderer und Flüchtlinge nicht die notwendigen Mittel haben, um in die reichen Länder zu gelangen, und/oder den einfacheren, schnelleren und billigeren Weg in die Nachbarländer bevorzugen, wo sie auch leichter in Kontakt mit ihren Familien bleiben können. Möglicherweise wird diese Migration durch wirtschaftliche Fortschritte in den Entwicklungsländern begünstigt, dazu tragen aber auch regionale Konflikte vorbei.

Anhang

Links

Finnland: Ydinenergia? Ei kiitos!

Samstag, Juli 28th, 2012

“Olkiluoto Blockade Sat 11 Aug and Nuclear Camp 6-13 Aug, 2012 in Finland!

See full program here:

NUCLEAR CAMP 2012 PROGRAM doc

and here: NUCLEAR CAMP 2012 PROGRAM pdf

From uranium mining to nuclear waste storage, nuclear power poses a health risk to current and future generations alike. We refuse to be part of this costly and dangerous experiment which mainly serves the interests of big industry. We therefore demand a nuclear power phase-out.

On August 11, people are going to block the roads to Olkiluoto nuclear power plant in Eurajoki. Previous years have seen people blocking the roads using banners, drumming, performances and peaceful civil disobedience. You can join the demonstration in any way you like, with no obligation to participate in civil disobedience.

Make sure not to bring with you anything that could be classed as a weapon. No alcohol or drugs in the demonstration. Everyone is asked to refrain from any form of violence, sexism, racism and provocations.

This year the action day is preceded by an international anti-nuclear camp, held at a local farmhouse. The camp program includes practical and informative workshops, such as the current situation of Japan’s nuclear disaster and introducing the movement against mining in Finland. The guest speakers, documentaries and workshops during the week will illustrate the international anti-nuclear movement and provide skills and tools for local campaigning.

There will be a special program for kids, and babysitting help available. As well as yummy vegan food, sauna, crafting, live bands and sharing struggles for a nuclear free future!

Welcome!

Sign up for the camp at olbcamp (at) riseup.net

You will get driving instructions upon signing up.

Ask more from the info number: + 358 40 461 9154

Recommended prices:

Whole camp 7 days:30-60 EUR Includes three meals per day, program and basic accommodation in tents/indoors

Alternatively 1 day: 5-8EUR 1 meal: 3-5EUR

Children under 10 years for free.

Shared rides: We also recommend to take your own car/bike/minibus to the camp and demonstration. If you need a ride or can offer one, notify us at: olkiluotoblockade (at) riseup.net

From Tampere: a minibus leaves to the camp on Monday Aug 6 at 18.00 and on Friday 10 Aug at 12:00. You can reserve seats at olkiluotoblockade (at) riseup.net

From Helsinki: The Union of Conscientious Objectors organises a bus on Friday Aug 10, starting at 11.30. from Rauhanasema, the Peace Station in Pasila. Reserve seats at toimisto (at) akl-web.fi or by calling +358 (0)40 836 27 86 More info on the bus from Helsinki: http://akl-web.fi/tapahtumat/olkiluotoblockade2012

From Turku this same bus leaves on Aug 10 at 14.00 in front of the Railway station. Reserve seats from toimisto@akl-web.fi or call +358 (0)40 836 27 86 More info: http://akl-web.fi/tapahtumat/olkiluotoblockade2012

Train and bus Connections:

Nearest station is Harjavalta, if you need a drive from station call +358 40 461 9154 (0404619154) or mail olbcamp(at)riseup.net

Train from Helsinki 6.30 – Tampere 8.07 – Harjavalta 9,27
Bus from Turku 7.35 – Harjavalta 9.35
Bus from Vaasa 5.30 – Harjavalta 9.30

Train from Helsinki 14.30 – Tampere 16.07 – Harjavalta 17.29
Bus from Turku 15.35 – Harjavalta 17.35
Busi from Vaasa 13.30 – Harjavalta 17.30

Train : Helsinki 16.06 – Tampere 18.07 – Harjavalta 19.27
Bus: Turku 19.00 – Harjavalta 20.45
Bus: Vaasa 16.30 – Harjavalta 20.30

Coming to Finland from abroad. If you need accomodation in Turku or Helsinki or a ride to the camp or any other help, email us:

  • Turku, pitsinnyplaystku@lists.riseup.net
  • Helsinki, olkiluotoblockade@riseup.net “
 

(Quelle: Olkiluotoblockade 2012.)

BRD: Greenwashing bei Lufthansa

Donnerstag, Juli 14th, 2011

“Lufthansa tankt Regenwald

Fliegen kostet besonders viel Sprit und schadet der Umwelt. Die Lufthansa allein verbraucht pro Tag 30 Millionen Liter Kerosin auf Erdölbasis und bläst dabei massenhaft klimaschädliche Abgase in die Erdatmosphäre. Mit „Biosprit‟ will die Fluglinie ihren schädlichen Emissionen nun einen grünen Anstrich verpassen. Burnfair – gerecht verbrennen – nennt sie ihr Pilotprojekt, das vom Bundeswirtschaftsministerium mit 2,5 Millionen Euro Steuergeldern gefördert wird.

Wie viele Studien brauchen Politiker und Konzerne noch um zu begreifen: Wenn man Treibstoffe aus Pflanzen gewinnt, heizt man das Klima an, weil für die Plantagen Tropenwälder und Savannen gerodet werden. Man vertreibt Millionen von Menschen, rottet Tier- und Pflanzenarten aus und vergiftet Böden und Gewässer mit Pestiziden. Man verschärft den Hunger in der Welt, weil auf den Ackerflächen Energiestatt Nahrungspflanzen wachsen.

Es sind alles bekannte Fakten, doch sie werden von den Entscheidungsträgern ignoriert selbst wenn sie aus den eigenen Reihen kommen. So belegen gleich vier neue von der EU beauftragte Expertenstudien, dass Biotreibstoffe klar die EU-Klimaziele verfehlen. Die Studien waren durchgesickert und wurden am vergangenen Freitag durch die Nachrichtenagentur Reuters zitiert. Darin steht unter anderem: „Biodiesel aus asiatischem Palmöl, aus südamerikanischem Soja und europäischem Raps haben alle insgesamt größere schädliche Auswirkungen auf das Klima als herkömmlicher Diesel.

Auch die Lufthansa schlägt alle wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse in den Wind. Ab dem 15. Juli soll ein Airbus 321 der Lufthansa viermal täglich zwischen Hamburg und Frankfurt mit sogenanntem Biosprit fliegen. Sechs Monate wird dabei hoch in der Luft ein Gemisch aus Kerosin, Pflanzenölen und Tierfetten im regulären Linienbetrieb getestet. „Wir wollten ursprünglich Jatrophaöl einsetzen‟, sagt Joachim Buse, Lufthansa-Vizepräsident für den Bereich Biokraftstoff. „Doch die für den Testbetrieb benötigten 800 Tonnen haben wir nicht zusammenbekommen. Deshalb starten wir zunächst mit einem Gemisch aus Palmöl, Jatrophaöl und tierischen Fetten.‟ Das war am 11. März, als die Lufthansa noch auf die Zulassung des Kerosin-Gemisches für den Linienbetrieb warten musste. Inzwischen liegt die Genehmigung vor – aber welche Pflanzenöle jetzt tatsächlich beteiligt sind und woher sie stammen – dieses Geheimnis will die Kranich-Linie erst zum Start lüften.

Klimafreundlicher Sprit ist eine Illusion. Die Alternative heißt: weniger fliegen! Rettet den Regenwald fordert das Unternehmen und das Bundeswirtschaftsministerium dazu auf, das Agrosprit-Projekt sofort einzustellen.

Nach den Lufthansa-Plänen sollen im Jahr 2025 alle Flugzeuge bereits mit 50 Prozent Agrosprit verkehren. Dazu hat die Fluglinie schon mal die benötigten Anbauflächen durchgerechnet: Für Mais betrüge die Anbaufläche 474.000 Quadratkilometer (entspricht den Landesflächen von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz), bei Raps 68.000 km² (entspricht der Fläche Bayerns), für Jatropha 43.000 km² (fast so groß wie Niedersachsen) und bei Palmöl 14.000 km² (fast die Größe Thüringens). Die Zahlen machen deutlich: Die Pläne sind völlig unrealistisch.

Projektpartner und Lieferant des Agrosprits ist der finnische Konzern Neste Oil, der Gewinner des diesjährigen „Public-Eye-Award‟. Mit diesem alljährlich von Umwelt- und Menschenrechtsorganisationen verliehenen Antipreis für die weltweit größten Zerstörer war Neste Oil parallel zum Weltwirtschaftsforum in Davos am 28. Januar ausgezeichnet worden. Denn der Konzern will den europäischen Markt mit seinem neuen Kraftstoff überschwemmen und setzt vor allem auf Palmöl, das Hauptverursacher der Regenwaldrodung und Landvertreibungen in Südostasien ist. Im November 2010 hat Neste in Singapur die mit 800.000 Tonnen Jahresproduktion größte Palmöldieselraffinerie der Welt eröffnet. Zwei ähnliche Anlagen befinden sich in Rotterdam und bei Helsinki im Bau.”

 

(Quelle: Rettet den Regenwald.)

Hinweis

● Der Online-Petiton gegen das „burnfair‟-Projekt können Sie sich hier anschließen.

Global: Renaissance der Atomkraft?

Freitag, Mai 13th, 2011

“Neue Kernkraft – Die Ökonomie sagt nein

Im November des vergangenen Jahres veröffentlichten Analysten der Citibank eine Studie unter dem knackigen Titel “New Nuclear – The Economics say no” (Neue Kernkraft – Die Ökonomie sagt nein, siehe https://www.citigroupgeo.com/pdf/SEU27102.pdf).

Die Zahlen der IAEA (Internationale Atomenergieagentur) zum 30.6.10 zeigen Erfreuliches: Weltweit sind im ersten Halbjahr 2010 nur zwei neue Atomkraftwerke ans Netz gegangen. Da viele der laufenden 438 AKW alt, abgenutzt und abgeschrieben sind, und deswegen in den kommenden Jahren stillgelegt werden, können auch die sieben zusätzlichen AKW-Baustellen den weltweiten Bestand nicht sichern. Der Anteil der Atomenergie an der Welt-Energieversorgung sinkt immer tiefer. Zur Zeit liegt er bei rund zwei Prozent.

Explodierende Kosten beim Bau der neuen Reaktorlinie im finnischen Olkiluoto bzw. dem französischen AKW-Standort Flamanville und die lange Bauzeit dämpften die Erwartungen der Branche auf eine “Renaissance”. 5,3 Mrd. Euro Mehrkosten sind in Olkiluoto zu erwarten, statt 2009 wird es voraussichtlich erst 2013 ans Netz gehen.

Wer sich die Liste der Länder, in denen es AKW-Neubauten gibt, genau ansieht, der stellt leicht fest: Ausbauprogramme gibt es in Ländern mit staatlicher Lenkung und Subvention der Atomkraft sowie in “Schwellenländern”, bei denen die Nutzung der Atomkraft die Möglichkeit impliziert, diese auch militärisch zu nutzen. Eine Sonderrolle spielt dabei das finnische Atomprogramm – das Land setzt auf den Stromexport.

Im ersten Halbjahr 2010 hat je ein Kernkraftwerk in Russland und in Indien den Dauerbetrieb begonnen. Eines in Frankreich wurde endgültig stillgelegt. Sieben AKW-Baustellen wurden eröffnet: vier in China, zwei in Russland und eine in Brasilien. (http://www.iaea.org/programmes/a2/index.html)

Seit dem Jahr 2000 haben in folgenden Ländern AKW-Neubauten begonnen: China (26), Russland (9), Indien (8), Südkorea (6), Japan (3), Finnland (1), Frankreich (1), Pakistan (1), Brasilien (1)”

 

(Quelle: Friedenskooperative.)

BRD: Die GTZ und die Palmöl-Connection

Dienstag, Mai 10th, 2011

“Africa: Development Agencies Support Harmful Oil Palm Production

By Julio Godoy

Increasing industrial production of oil palm in sub-Saharan African countries, carried out by foreign corporations, is destroying the livelihoods of millions of Africans and the biodiversity of ecosystems. Despite this, industrialised countries’ governments and development agencies continue to promote such production.

African countries most affected are Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Ghana. But palm oil fields and industrial facilities are located in at least the half of sub-Saharan African countries.

In the vast majority of cases, the industrial production of oil palm is in the hands of foreign corporations, such as the French Bolloré group, the Brazilian petroleum group Petrobras, the Italian company ENI and the Singapore-based Wilmar International. Most of the exploiters are European Union-based companies.

The industrial system of oil palm production in Africa “is based on monoculture plantations where the land only produces palm fruits for industry,” according to Ricardo Carrere, an expert in forest management at the World Rainforest Movement (WRM).

The WRM, with a secretariat in Montevideo, Uruguay, is an international organisation promoting local people’s land rights.

“In most if not all cases, land is taken away from local communities with little or no compensation, and bio-diverse ecosystems, mostly forests, are destroyed and substituted by large areas of palm monocultures,” says Carrere, author of “Oil palm in Africa: Past, present and future scenarios”, a report that the WRM published in 2010.

Carrere told IPS that all the foreign oil palm facilities in Africa are characterised by appalling working conditions. “During the colonial times, slavery and forced labour were the daily toll of Africans in such plantations. In the modern system, the conditions are near-slavery with low-paid labour.”

As an example, Carrere mentions the oil palm plantations and industrial facilities managed by the Bolloré group in Cameroon. “The living and working conditions there are abysmal,” he comments. “The living quarters are insalubrious; there is no regular access to water or electricity; and the temporary employees earn extremely low wages.”

According to Carrere and other researchers, hundreds of subcontracted workers toil in these plantations and facilities for six days a week, sometimes from six o’clock in the morning until six o’clock at night, with no social security coverage and earning around two dollars per day.

In his survey, Carrere compared modern, foreign-led industrial palm oil production with the traditional process. “The modern system is even worse than the old one. The new one is characterised by extensive drainage of the land and widespread use of agrochemicals, both impacting on local water resources.”

The recent expansion of the industrial plantations of palm oil has been mostly led by growing demand in industrialised countries for so called agro-fuels, falsely seen as an ecological alternative to fossil fuels.

But the local ecological impact of the palm oil production in sub-Saharan African countries is disastrous, according to numerous surveys. The case of the Bugala Island plantations in Lake Victoria in Uganda serves as another illustration.

According to a study by the Kalangala District Forum of nongovernmental organisations, the palm oil plantations there have increased pressure on central forest reserves, substantially contributed to the depletion of forest products, deforestation, soil erosion and the draining of wetlands.

Furthermore, these plantations have had negative socio-economic effects for the communities living on the islands. These consequences include the violation of land rights of indigenous people, the loss of land as a safety net and reduced access for local communities to resources.

The forum also underlines that the plantations have contributed to the sudden rise of the price of land and destroyed the community-based local economy.

Carrere raises alarm about the “crucial role” of national, regional and multilateral institutions in the promotion and development of foreign investments in the industrialisation of palm oil production in sub-Saharan Africa.

It is important to stress that such support has ignored all the accumulated evidence regarding the negative social and environmental impacts of large-scale plantations elsewhere in the developing world, Carrere says.

He stresses that these international efforts have “also ignored the social benefits of traditional sustainable practices in the production of palm oil. As a result, most support has been aimed at the development of the industrial model and practically none has been provided to the traditional system.”

Among the international financial and multilateral institutions allegedly involved in the promotion of the industrialisation of palm oil in Africa, Carrere mentions the African Development Bank, the African Investment Bank, the European Union through the European Development Fund, the European Investment Bank and the EU Partnership Dialogue Facility.

Other foreign state agencies alleged to be exacerbating the expansion of palm oil in Africa are the U.S. development agency USAid and the U.S. department of agriculture, Britain’s department for international development (Dfid), Finland’s FinnFund and Germany’s agency for technical cooperation, among others.

United Nations agencies are also implicated, such as the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the International Fund for Agricultural Development that have intervened in favour of the industrial production of palm oil in Africa.

The foreign oil palm plantations and facilities in Africa have generated legal conflicts in companies’ countries of origin. In France, for instance, the Bolloré group in 2010 brought legal challenges against two press reports on its activities in Cameroon.

The court in Paris ruled that the first report could not be considered defamatory. In the second case, no ruling was handed down, apparently because the Bolloré group decided to withdraw the charges two weeks before the trial was scheduled to take place.”

 

(Quelle: IPS News.)

Europa: Weiterhin Menschenrechtsverletzungen an Sinti und Roma

Freitag, April 8th, 2011

FACTSHEET: ROMA RIGHTS RECORD 2011

Budapest, 8 April 2011: On the occasion of the 40th International Roma Day and the 5th European Roma Platform, the European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC) recalls the many human rights issues that continue to affect Romani communities in Europe.

Violence against Roma: In cases brought by the ERRC in Croatia (2009), Bulgaria (2010) and Macedonia (2008), the European Court of Human Rights confirmed that the State is obliged to investigate and prosecute persons who commit violence against Roma, whether they are private actors or State officials. Despite this, most perpetrators of violence against Roma in Europe act with impunity. Since 2008, the ERRC has registered at least 48 violent attacks against Roma in Hungary, at least 19 attacks in the Czech Republic and at least 10 attacks in Slovakia resulting in a combined total of at least 11 fatalities and involving Molotov cocktails, hand grenades and guns, police violence, arson attacks, mob violence and demonstrations. In December 2010, skinheads attacked 2 young Romani men exiting public transportation with bats in Bulgaria and in March 2011 a Romani boy was attacked and insulted on the way to school by three men in Serbia. Other incidents of mob violence against Roma were recorded in Italy, Northern Ireland and Turkey in the last three years. ERRC monitoring of the State response to violence against Roma in 44 selected cases in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia found that only 20% of cases have resulted in convictions (only one final judgment), police investigations were suspended without identifying suspects in nearly 1/3 of cases and racial motivation was ruled out or not confirmed during police investigation in 50% of all cases.

Freedom of movement: In July of 2010, France announced plans to evict Travellers and Roma from “illegal settlements” and to expel Roma from other EU states. French authorities expelled roughly 10,000 Roma in 2009 and more than 8,000 as of September 2010: after that time the French Government stopped publishing relevant statistics but ERRC research in March 2011 found ongoing evictions and expulsions. From May 2008 until present, Italian authorities have instituted a State of Emergency to deal with Roma and have aggressively evicted Roma from settlements. Italy publicly supported the French expulsions and piecemeal evidence of expulsions from Italy has come to light. Denmark summarily expelled 23 Roma back to Romania in July 2010 one day after they were detained: ERRC appeals against these deportation orders are pending. Sweden expelled 50 Roma to Romania in 2010. Germany paid more than 100 Roma to return to Romania in June 2009. Finland, amid public outcries about public security, threatened expulsions in 2010. In many cases, police action has been concurrent with statements by public officials that Roma as an ethnic group are predisposed to crime and other antisocial behaviour.

Increasing activity of extremist political parties and politicians: Extremist political parties and politicians have sharpened their anti-Romani rhetoric and actions in many EU countries. In Hungary, the Magyar Garda (banned in 2009), Szebb Jövőért Polgárőr Egyesület and related organisations engaging in paramilitary activities with an explicit racist agenda continue to operate openly. In Gyöngyöspata the groups patrolled a Romani neighbourhood for 16 days in March 2011, intimidating and harassing Romani residents. Jobbik, an extremist party with an explicit anti-Romani platform, won four seats in European Parliament elections in 2009 and 47 seats (17% of the vote) in national elections in 2010. In Italy, the Government has continued to use anti-Romani rhetoric to harden public opinion against Roma and Sinti and has moved aggressively to evict Roma from their homes and herd them into controlled camps. In Slovakia in 2010, the far-right Ludova Strana Nase Slovensko has been increasingly active with rhetoric specifically referring to “Gypsy criminality.” In the Czech Republic, the far right Workers Party and its successor the Workers Party of Social Justice have organised high profile rallies which have attracted neo-Nazis and sparked violent clashes. The Czech National Party ran advertisements for the European Parliament election in 2009 calling for a “final solution to the Gypsy problem”. In February 2010 the Romanian Foreign Minister made public statements suggesting that Roma are genetically predisposed to criminality and media reported that the President defended the Minister. Romanian MPs also attempted to officially change the name of Roma to “Gypsies” to avoid confusion with “Romanians”. During the media frenzy surrounding the expulsion of Roma from France, the Bulgarian Prime Minister and the Romanian President erroneously referred to the Roma as nomads.

Systemic segregation in education continues: The European Court of Human Rights has affirmed that school segregation of Romani children (in schools for children with disabilities and in separate schools or classes in mainstream schools) constitutes illegal discrimination in judgments against the Czech Republic (2007), Greece (2008) and Croatia (2010). Despite these rulings, educational segregation of Romani children is systemic in many European countries: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia are noteworthy, with credible reports of segregation in Macedonia, Northern Ireland (UK), Portugal and Spain. Romani children complete school at much lower rates than their non-Romani peers. The response of Governments has been wholly inadequate: In the Czech Republic, the Government has recognised the problem but its action plan does not address ethnic discrimination; in Bulgaria, successful integration pilots have not been incorporated into a scaled-up Government programme after more than a decade; and in 2010 in Slovakia the then Prime Minister suggested further segregation of Roma in boarding schools.

Widespread residential segregation and forced evictions: An October 2009 report of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, prepared by the ERRC, found that “segregation is still evident in many EU Member States, such as Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Greece, Spain, France, Cyprus, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia, sometimes as a result of deliberate government policy.” In Italy, the placement of Roma and Sinti in “nomad camps” constitutes an official policy to segregate Roma and Sinti from the Italian majority. Since 2008, evictions of Roma in violation of international law have continued in Albania, Bulgaria, France, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Slovakia. Italy has been particularly active: in Milan alone since 2010, authorities report having conducted over 100 evictions affecting more than 3,600 people (a portion of this group are repeatedly evicted persons).

Trafficking in human beings: Low socio-economic status, low educational achievement and high levels of unemployment, compounded with high levels of discrimination and racism, place Roma at an inordinately high risk of human trafficking. A 2010 US State Department report discusses the overrepresentation of Roma as victims of trafficking and their high vulnerability to sexual exploitation, forced labour and child begging in nearly half of the European countries covered. ERRC research in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia during early 2010 indicated that Roma represent 50-80% of victims in Bulgaria, at least 40% in Hungary, 70% in Slovakia and up to 70% in parts of the Czech Republic.

Child protection: In Bulgaria, Romani children account for around 50% of the children in the State-run children’s homes and about 33% of the children in State-run homes for children with intellectual disabilities. In the Czech Republic, around 40% of the children in a sample of 17 children’s homes visited by the ERRC in 5 regions were Romani. During research in 5 counties in Hungary, Romani children were found to represent 65% of the children in State care. The General Directorate for Social Assistance and Child Protection in Romania reported that Romani children constitute up to 80% of the population in children’s homes in some regions. In Slovakia social workers and child protection officials report that Romani children compose at least 70% of the children in institutional care.

Denial of access to health care and social assistance: Discrimination remains a barrier to health care and social assistance for Roma in many European states. In 2009, the European Committee of Social Rights found Bulgaria in violation of the European Social Charter twice by failing to ensure that Roma have adequate access to the health care system and to social assistance, prompting the Government to amend the law on social assistance. In Kosovo, lead contamination of IDP camps housing Roma in Northern Mitrovicë/Mitrovica is considered one of the biggest medical crises in the region. Despite significant international and EU attention, Roma continue to live in one of the camps after more than 10 years, exposed to lead contamination which has reportedly resulted in dozens of deaths.

Coercive sterilisation of Romani women: In Hungary the ERRC has documented sporadic cases, most recently from 2008. Czech cases have also been reported as recently as 2007. In 2009 the Czech Government expressed regret to the victims of this practice and the Hungarian Government compensated one victim, but no Government has adopted a comprehensive plan to compensate all victims or adequately reformed health care law regarding informed consent. Although numerous cases have been documented in Slovakia, there has been no Government response to date.

Factsheet: Roma Rights (PDF)

Contact: Sinan Gokçen, Media and Communications Officer,
sinan.gokcen@errc.org, +36.30.500.1324

©ERRC 2011. All rights reserved”

 

(Quelle: European Roma Rights Centre.)