Posts Tagged ‘Verhütung’

UN: Frauenrechte in bewaffenten Konflikten

Dienstag, April 9th, 2013

“Die Rechte von Frauen im bewaffneten Konflikt nach der 57. Sitzung der UNO-Frauenstatuskonferenz

Am 17. März 2013 ging die 57. jährliche Sitzung der UNO-Frauenstatuskonferenz zu Ende. Während das Abschlussdokument allgemein als große Errungenschaft in Bezug auf Frauenrechte gefeiert wurde, enthält es nach genauerer Analyse nur wenig Neues in Bezug auf die Rechte von Frauen in bewaffneten Konflikten.

Von Rieke Arendt, LL.M. (Cantab)

Am 23.03.2013 ging die 57. Sitzung der UNO-Frauenstatuskonferenz zu Ende. Entgegen aller Erwartungen kam es in letzter Minute doch noch zu der Verabschiedung eines Abschlusspapiers. Dies war bis zum Schluss unsicher geblieben, da verschiedene Staaten wie der Vatikan, islamische Länder wie Iran, Saudi- Arabien, Katar, Libyen, Nigeria und Sudan, aber auch Russland versuchten, ein Abschlusspapier zu blockieren. Kritikpunkt der islamischen Länder war vor allem die Formulierung, dass Frauenrechte nicht durch Sitten, Traditionen oder religiöse Ansichten relativiert werden könnten (Punkt 14 des Abschlusspapiers). Außerdem kritisiert wurde der (indirekte) Verweis darauf, dass Vergewaltigung auch das gewaltsame Vorgehen eines Mannes gegen seine Ehefrau oder Lebensgefährtin miteinschließe (Punkt ggg). Kritikpunkt für den Vatikan war vor allem der Verweis auf das Recht auf Schwangerschaftsabbrüche und des unbeschränkten Zugangs zu Notfallverhütungsmitteln (Punkt iii). Im Gegenzug für die Zustimmung dieser Länder gaben die nordischen Länder, wie z. B. Schweden, weitergehende Forderungen auf eine Implementierung der Rechte Homosexueller, Transsexueller und Sexarbeiter, sowie des Rechts auf sexuelle Gesundheit auf.

Da die Konferenz im Jahr zuvor wegen des Dissenses der teilnehmenden Staaten ohne Abschlusspapier beendet werden musste, ist der diesjährige Verlauf als großer Erfolg zu werten. Allerdings entfaltet das Abschlusspapier keine rechtlich verbindliche Wirkung, sondern gibt lediglich einen gewissen Erwartungshorizont vor, an Hand dessen die im Anschluss von den einzelnen Staaten ergriffenen Maßnahmen gemessen werden können.

In Bezug auf den Schutz und die Rechte von Frauen im Zusammenhang mit bewaffneten Konflikten enthält das Dokument wenig Neues. Punkt 4 des Abschlussdokuments erinnert an die Regeln des humanitären Völkerrechts im Allgemeinen und die Genfer Konventionen von 1949, sowie die beiden Genfer Zusatzprotokolle von 1977 im Besonderen. Punkt 5 der Abschlusserklärung bezieht sich auf die Aufnahme von frauenspezifischer Gewalt im Rom-Statut (Vergewaltigung, sexuelle Sklaverei, Nötigung zur Prostitution, erzwungene Schwangerschaft, Zwangssterilisation und vergleichbare Formen sexueller Gewalt als Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit gem. Art. 7 (1) (g) sowie als Kriegsverbrechen im internationalen bewaffneten Konflikt gem. Art. 8 (2) (b) (xxii) und im nicht-internationalen bewaffneten Konflikt gem. Art. 8 (2) (e) (vi)) und in den Statuten der ad hoc Gerichtshöfe (Vergewaltigung als Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit gem. Art. 5 (g) JStGH und Art. 3 (g) RStGH und Vergewaltigung, Nötigung zur Prostitution und unzüchtige Handlungen jeder Art als Verstoß gegen den gemeinsamen Artikel 3 der GA gem. Art. 4 (e) RStGH). Darüber hinaus fordert das Abschlusspapier die unterzeichnenden Staaten in Punkt 13 dazu auf, Gewalt gegen Frauen und Mädchen im bewaffneten Konflikt sowie in Post-Konfliktsituationen aktiver zu bekämpfen sowie effektivere Maßnahmen zur Identifizierung und Bestrafung der Täter, Entschädigung der Opfer und einen besseren Zugang zu Rechtsmitteln für die weiblichen Opfer zu schaffen. Außerdem wird betont, dass der illegale Handel mit und Gebrauch von Klein- und Leichtwaffen indirekt die Gewalt gegen Frauen und Mädchen verstärke (Punkt 26). Die Frauenstatuskonferenz hat damit das grundlegende Problem der Gewalt gegen Frauen und Mädchen im bewaffneten Konflikt angesprochen: es mangelt nicht so sehr an Vorschriften, die Gewalt verbieten, als an effektiven Präventionsmechanismen und Rechtsmitteln. Leider konnte das Dokument in diesem Punkt nicht verbindlicher werden.

Quellen:
http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/csw57/CSW57_a_greed_
conclusions_advance_unedited_version_18_March_2013.pdf

http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/un-konferenz-gewalt-gegen-frauen-muss-ein-ende-haben-1.1626105

Nachfragen:
rieke.arendt@cantab.net

 

(Quelle: Institut für Friedenssicherungsrecht und Humanitäres Völkerrecht der Ruhr-Universität Bochum.)

Philippinen: Kirche gegen Kontrazeptiva

Montag, Juli 2nd, 2012

“PHILIPPINES: Rescuing “failed” family planning with cash

 

Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital in Manila

 

MANILA, 2 July 2012 (IRIN) – The government of the Philippines is aiming to save its “failed” national family planning programme and drastically cut maternal deaths by spending 500 million pesos (almost US$12 million) on contraceptives in 2012, a move bitterly opposed by the influential Roman Catholic Church.

The Department of Health has said it will use the money to purchase “family planning commodities and supplies” – an official euphemism for condoms, intra-uterine devices (IUDs), birth control pills and other contraceptives – and distribute them on a large scale for the first time in largely underfunded community centres across the country.

It is a controversial decision that even public health officials and family planning advocates admit may not be carried out by local officials wary of angering the Church or losing the votes of Catholic supporters.

The Church frowns on contraceptives and discourages Filipinos from using them, so government support for family planning programmes has usually been limited. Earlier attempts to boost family planning services failed when strict congressional vetting scrapped any programme that involved paying for and distributing contraceptives.

The money for the new family planning initiative will have to come from 2012 general budget allocations of $990 million. Health department officials say the move is aimed at cutting maternal mortality rates, which went from just 162 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2006 to 221 in 2011 – a rise of 35 percent – according to the government’s 2011 Family Health Survey.

Health officials say at this pace the Philippines will likely miss the UN Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of reducing the 1990 maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by three-quarters by 2015.

“The Philippines started its family planning programme in the 1970s, when we had a similar population to Thailand of around 40 million. But now our population is roughly 95 million, while Thailand only has 65 million,” said Esmeraldo Ilem, head of the Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital, the national maternity facility in the capital, Manila.

“This difference… is attributed to Thailand’s very successful [family planning] programme,” he said. “In other words, ours has been unsuccessful.” The hospital’s dark hallways and perpetually overcrowded maternity wards could symbolize the country’s inadequate health sector management.

A reproductive health bill that includes allocating funds for contraceptives and introducing sex education for primary school children has been bitterly debated in Congress for the past two years, but there is little sign of it being passed anytime soon.

Foreign governments and NGOs have so far filled the gap, but the global financial crisis and changing geopolitical priorities have forced them to cut back on aid, say Philippine government officials. In 2005 donors provided $4.4 million for contraceptives, with the US government contributing most of the money, according to the public-private Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition, which tracks shipments of reproductive health supplies.

Funding for contraception was half that amount in 2011. The International Planned Parenthood Federation, Marie Stopes International – a global reproductive health NGO – and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) together provided $2.2 million for contraceptives, with $836,000 coming from UNFPA.

As a result, some six million Filipina women reported an “unmet need” for modern family planning services, according to the health department.

“These are women who are too old or too young to give birth, or those who already have too many [children], yet still come here and bear babies because they do not have proper access to health services,” Ilem said as he made the rounds in Fabella’s crowded wards.

The city government of Manila hosts the national headquarters of the Catholic Church in a country where more than 80 percent of the people identify themselves as members.

“In Manila, there is no health centre where you can find free contraceptives.” The city banned contraceptives in government health centres about a decade ago.

President Benigno Aquino, elected in 2010 on a promise to end poverty, initially voiced support for the reproductive health bill, but intense lobbying by Church officials, whose views on key issues often shape public opinion, has softened that position.

“We will not meet the MDG [Millennium Development Goal] on maternal health,” Ilem said. “But at the very least the purpose of this spending is to help save our family planning programme by… mak[ing] contraceptives available to the public.”

The statistics and acronyms mean little to women like Irish Gili, 31, a mother of eight who had just delivered her latest baby at Fabella. She has never had access to family planning advice, much less free contraceptives. She nearly died while delivering her seventh child, but found herself pregnant again, barely a month after giving birth.

“I have been advised to have a [tubal] ligation already,” she said. “I suppose I need to that now. I have so many mouths to feed, and my body can no longer handle another childbirth.”

aag/pt

[This report does not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations]”

 

(Quelle: IRIN News.)

Marokko: Kampf um Selbstbestimmung

Montag, Juni 11th, 2012

“Calls for legalized abortions grow louder in Morocco

Many Moroccan women are resorting to backstreet abortions, prompting calls for reform in country where termination of pregnancies remains illegal.

By Henri Mamarbachi – RABAT

Hundreds of Moroccan women a day are resorting to backstreet abortions, a leading doctor has estimated, prompting calls for reform in a country where the termination of pregnancies remains illegal.

Campaigners say some of those resorting to illegal abortion are the victims of rape, driven at least in part by the social stigma attached not just to having a child out of wedlock but even having suffered rape.

The victims include girls forced to work as maids and women trapped in forced marriages, they say.

And the voices calling for a repeal of the ban on abortion are growing louder.

A national congress will be held on June 12 in Rabat, under the auspices of the Moroccan Association for the Fight against Clandestine Abortion, headed by Professor Chafik Chraibi.

Deputies and Health Minister El Hossein el Ouardi are expected to attend.

“What is happening in Morocco is dramatic,” said Chraibi, a renowned gynecologist.

Backstreet abortions, mainly among young people, led to the women concerned being rejected by their families, he said. Women could end up being marginalized, forced into prostitution and sometimes committing suicide.

While it is impossible to get accurate figures for what is still an illegal activity, Chraibi said: “We believe that 600 abortions are carried out daily by doctors and another 200 non-medical abortions.

“In Tunisia, where it is legal to have abortions, it’s 20 times less,” he added.

“A dozen doctors are now in prison for having carried out illegal abortion. A gynecologist from the Al Jadida region was sentenced to a year in prison, after carrying out an abortion for a young woman,” said the doctor.

And another result of the lack of access to legal abortions was the high number of abandoned children, he added: around 17,000 a year.

The association he runs has been championing a reform of the law. And he argues that legalising abortion could only have a positive effect.

“Our message is that we must work on prevention, as according to the World Health Organisation, 13 percent of maternal mortality is due to abortion.”

The debate over abortion is just the latest front of an ongoing conflict between conservative supporters of traditional values and more liberal, reform-minded campaigners.

A recent case of a 16-year-old girl who committed suicide after being forced to wed her rapist — a provision of Moroccan law allowed him to thus escape prosecution — provoked outrage in Morocco.

Chraibi however said he was more optimistic than ever that there would be change on the abortion issue.

In the past, he said, the political parties were afraid to get involved. But now, the “issue has become a common problem, and the health minister backs us.”

The minister is not a member of the Justice and Development Party (PJD), the Islamist party that is the senior partner in the ruling coalition. He is with the Party of Progress and Socialism (PPS).

But Bassima Hakkaoui, the minister for women and the family, is a PJD member.

She accused the pro-reform advocates of “using the issue of child rape for political means and in a negative manner, which has deeply hurt the image of Morocco overseas.”

Her remarks provoked a storm of criticism from feminist activists.

Fauzia Assouli, president of the Federation of the Democratic League of Women’s Rights, accused the minister of trying to divert attention from the central issue.

“This type of discourse comes from a fixed mindset,” she said.

“Questions such as rape, abortion and child labour are the responsibility of the state,” she added.

“We are going in all directions. It is difficult to move forward with a conservative government,” she said.

But at the same time, she said, there was a growing sense of awareness, a sense of momentum among activists.”

(Quelle: Middle East Online.)

Nachrichten-Überblick 22.07.2010

Donnerstag, Juli 22nd, 2010

[22.07.2010 – 09:59]

 

* BRD: “I’m not a pirate – I’m a fisherman”

Zehn Jungen und Männern aus Somalia soll wegen Angriffs auf den Seeverkehr sowie versuchten erpresserischen Menschenraubs vor dem Landgericht Hamburg der erste Piratenprozess seit 400 Jahren gemacht werden.

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* HAITI: Wiederaufbau in Eigenregie als einzige Chance

It appears that Haiti’s “15 minutes of fame” are up. With few exceptions, the journalists who flooded the zone following the earthquake are nowhere to be seen. And the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee’s harsh criticism of the rebuilding effort six months after the earthquake is a sign that patience is wearing thin. Meanwhile, the lives of Haitians on the ground are still appalling — over a million in tent cities and squatter villages, rain flooding their streets, rape on the rise, too many basic services not restored.

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* MALAYSIA: Debate on Sex Education Rises with Teen Pregnancies

The prospect of motherhood filled 17-year-old Fatimah’s heart with dread.

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* BOTSWANA: Wasser ist kein Menschenrecht

San bushmen in Botswana have lost a court case to allow them to re-open a vital waterhole in the centre of the Kalahari desert. Diamonds were found in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, traditional home to the bushmen, in the 1980s – and the government asked them to leave.

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* COSTA RICA: Die USA bringen sich in ihrem “Hinterhof” in Stellung

With votes secured from the official National Liberation Party (PLN), the Libertarian Movement, and Justo Orozco, the evangelical congressman from the Costa Rican Renovation party, on July 1st, the Costa Rican Congress authorized the entry into that country of 46 warships from the U.S. Navy, 200 helicopters and combat aircraft and 7,000 Marines.

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* AFRIKA: “Marktwirtschaft” zerstört kleinbäuerliche Landwirtschaft

As evidenced by USAID administrator Rajiv Shah’s recent speech to the US Global Leadership Coalition (USGLC), the US and the Green Revolution’s ‘solutions’ for African agriculture remain more of the same, rooted in a corporate-funded, GMO-oriented and market-based system designed entirely in the interests of Western business. While US development aid fasts becomes simply ‘an investment subsidised by US taxpayers with high returns for US corporations’, African farmers’ groups such as COPAGEN, LEISA and PELUM continue to organise in defence of self-determination and genetic biodiversity, writes Richard Jonasse.

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* GROSSBRITANNIEN: Vor dem Irak-Krieg wurden Märchen erzählt

Britische Geheimdienstchefin bestätigt, dass Saddam Hussein keine Bedrohung darstellte und mit den Anschlägen vom 11.9. nichts zu tun hatte.

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* GLOBAL: Tödlicher Staub – der globale Handel mit Asbest

A global network of lobby groups has spent nearly $100 million since the mid-1980s to preserve the international market for asbestos, a known carcinogen that’s taken millions of lives and is banned or restricted in 52 countries, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists has found in a nine-month investigation.

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* ISRAEL: Neues Raketenabwehrsystem erfolgreich getestet

“Iron Dome” soll Raketen-Angriffe aus Gaza und dem Südlibanon abwehren. Kritiker bemängeln die Reichweite.

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* MALAYSIA: Indigene Frauen Vergewaltigungsopfer der Holfäller-Mafia

A new report has exposed an ‘environment of violence’ against tribeswomen in Borneo. According to the report, released by a coalition of Malaysian human rights groups called the Penan Support Group, there have been repeated cases of rape and sexual assault against Penan women by the loggers who are destroying the tribe’s forests.

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* MONGOLEI: Ist die Kultur der NomadInnen am Ende?

Herders leave the steppe after losing a fifth of their livestock. Now foreign firms are to exploit Mongolia’s vast resources.

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* PAZIFIK: Kleine Inselstaaten drängen zur Eile bei Klimafinanzierung

Die Vereinten Nationen haben in diesem Jahr zwar eine hochkarätige Gruppe für die Finanzierung der Maßnahmen zur Bekämpfung und Anpassung des Klimawandels ins Leben gerufen. Doch die kleinen unmittelbar von der Erderwärmung bedrohten Inselstaaten im Pazifik fürchten, dass ihnen auch mit einem solchen Gremium die notwendigen Gelder nicht rechtzeitig zufließen werden.

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* BRD: Tod und Verwundung treffen Bundeswehr

Auf ihrem Internet-Portal kündigt die Bundeswehr am 20. Juli 2010 ein Arbeitspapier zum “Umgang mit Verwundung, Tod und Trauer im Einsatz” an, dass “Mitte August” von Bundeswehrangehörigen im Intranet der Bundeswehr eingesehen werden kann.

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* REPUBLIK SÜDAFRIKA: Militärpolizei zum Schutz der MigrantInnen

South Africa’s military joined police on Tuesday to patrol a Johannesburg township after assaults on foreign migrants injured at least 11 and increased concerns of a fresh wave of xenophobic attacks.

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* EU: “Kleiner Kreis entscheidet über die Zukunft der Landwirtschaft in Europa”

Das Europäische Patentamt muss eine Grundsatzentscheidung über die Patentierbarkeit von Pflanzen treffen.

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* NIGERIA: Ölquelle von ExxonMobil leck…

Fishermen in Ibeno, Southern Akwa Ibom, said they have reported the discharge of liquid suspected to be crude oil at the Qua Iboe oil fields in the Atlantic Ocean. Chief Inyang Ekong, the Secretary of the Artisan Fishermen Association of Nigeria in Akwa Ibom disclosed this to the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) in Ibeno, Akwa Ibom.
Ekong said that some fishermen noticed the discharge near the offshore oil production platforms operated by Mobil Producing Nigeria, an affiliate of the U.S. oil firm, ExxonMobil.

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* KANADA: Regierung verabschiedet sich leise von der Biodiversitäts-Konvention

The spirit of international negotiations in Montreal on a draft protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) of natural resources were marred by Canada’s insistence on a decentralised approach to ABS, Peigi Wilson, a Métis lawyer present at the meeting in support of the Quebec Native Women.

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[Update: 12:14]

* BURKINA FASO / NIGER: Grenzfrage soll friedlich entschieden werden

The West African countries of Burkina Faso and Niger have submitted a dispute over their common border to the United Nations International Court of Justice (ICJ) as part of a wider agreement by the two States to resolve the situation peacefully.

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* USA: Bald nanotechnologisch veränderte Lebensmittel?

Nanotechnology involves the ability to control matter at the scale of a nanometer—one billionth of a meter. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015.

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* BOLIVIEN: Neue Verfassung

Letztes Rahmengesetz verabschiedet: Verfassungsreform kann umgesetzt werden. Blockaden der Opposition blieben ohne Wirkung.

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* MEXIKO: US-Bank Wachovia hilft bei Drogengeldwäsche

The bank, now a unit of Wells Fargo, leads a list of firms that have moved dirty money for Mexico’s narcotics cartels–helping a $39 billion trade that has killed more than 22,000 people since 2006.

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* SOMALIA: Der “Krieg gegen den Terror” bedroht nicht nur Uganda

The U.S. war against Somalia expands outwards and “has now blown back to Uganda,” the U.S. ally that, “along with the minority Tutsi dictatorship in Rwanda, is America’s most reliable mercenary force in Black Africa.” Ethiopia and Kenya prepare to join Uganda in an offensive against the Somali resistance, to save America’s puppet mini-state in Mogadishu.

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* BRASILIEN: Hat sich die Landlosenbewegung von Lula kaufen lassen?

Tagelang herrschte Verwirrung auf allen Seiten rund um den parlamentarischen Untersuchungsausschuss zur öffentlichen Finanzierung der Landlosenbewegung MST. Für die Regierung war die Arbeit des Ausschusses mit dem Stichtag 17. Juli beendet. Nicht so für die Opposition, die mit einem überraschenden Schachzug in letzter Minute die Verlängerung des Ausschusses um weitere sechs Monate durchsetzte. Mitten im Wahlkampf um die Nachfolge von Präsident Lula da Silva könnte die regierende Arbeiterpartei PT damit ein Problem bekommen. Der Ausschuss war Ende letzten Jahres auf Drängen der Opposition eingerichtet worden, um die öffentliche Finanzierung des MST durch die Regierung zu untersuchen.

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* GAZA: Wer hat das Licht ausgemacht?

The Gaza Strip presently experiences 8-12 hours of scheduled power outages per day, which disrupt the normal functioning of humanitarian infrastructure, including health and education institutions and water and sewage systems, as well as the agricultural sector. The power outages also take a toll in human lives of people killed or injured by using generators, which are brought into Gaza through the tunnels, are of poor quality, and are not always used according to safety instructions. How was this shortage created and what can be done to resolve it?

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* KASCHMIR: Brutale Gewalt durch indische Truppen

Indian troops and police have killed fifteen people in Kashmir since June, sparking widespread protests. The Indian government has imposed a strict military curfew in the area as well as a media gag order on local journalists. The international community has remained silent on the human rights abuses in Kashmir.

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* GLOBAL: Krieg gegen die Erde

If you live on the Gulf Coast, welcome to the real world of oil — and just know that you’re not alone. In the Niger Delta and the Ecuadorian Amazon, among other places, your emerging hell has been the living hell of local populations for decades.

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* USA: Krieg gegen den Terror kostet bislang 1 Billion US-Dollar

A Congressional Research Service report on the costs of America’s assorted wars has put the global war on terror since September 11, 2001 at over $1 trillion, making it the second most expensive military action in American history, adjusting for inflation.

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* BRD: Gegen höhere Schutzstandards beim Asylrecht

Deutschland blockiert aus Sorge vor einer vermeintlichen «Sogwirkung» den Aufbau eines europäischen Asylsystems. Dies machte Innenstaatssekretär Ole Schröder am Donnerstag auf einem EU-Justiz- und Innenministertreffens in Brüssel klar. (…) Die von der EU-Kommission vorgeschlagenen höheren Rechtsschutzstandards würden die deutsche Praxis der Schnellabschiebungen an Flughäfen aber «aushöhlen», sagte der CDU-Politiker.

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* JORDANIEN: Stimmungsmache gegen PalästinenserInnen

Robert Fisk: Why Jordan is occupied by Palestinians
A powerful group of ex-army leaders say their country is being overrun – and they blame King Abdullah.

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* GLOBAL: Menschen hungern, weil zu wenig Nahrung produziert wird! – Ach, wirklich?

2008, the world witnessed an unprecedented food crisis. Food prices skyrocketed, and staple food disappeared from the market shelves. The resulting tremors were felt across the globe, with some 37 countries facing food riots.
Was the food crisis an outcome of the drought in Australia? Or was it because wheat production had fallen? Or was it because quite a sizable area under foodgrains had been diverted for biofuel production? The world had debated these options, but what emerged clearly was that much of it was triggered because of speculation in the futures trade. In fact, it was much worse than what was earlier anticipated.

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* NAHER / MITTLERER OSTEN: Run auf die Atomkraft (und damit auf Atomwaffen)

“Saudi Arabia’s decision last week to sign a nuclear cooperation pact with France marks a major step forward for a pan-Arab drive toward nuclear power,” reports UPI. “All told, 13 Middle Eastern states, including Egypt, have announced plans — or dusted off old plans — to build nuclear power stations since 2006. All say they have no intention of seeking to develop nuclear weapons. But there is concern that once they’ve mastered the technology they’ll seek to counter Iran’s alleged push to acquire such weapons by doing so themselves.”

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* KAMBODSCHA: SexarbeiterInnen werden illegal festgenommen und inhaftiert

Die kambodschanische Regierung soll umgehend Maßnahmen einleiten, um die Gewalt gegen SexarbeiterInnen zu beenden sowie die Regierungseinrichtungen schließen, in denen die Betroffenen illegal inhaftiert und missbraucht wurden, so Human Rights Watch.

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* BRD: Schützenhilfe für die Atomindustrie

Die Ärzteorganisation IPPNW kritisiert die heute von der Universität Mainz der Presse vorgestellte Studie “Kinder und Kernkraft” (KuK-Studie) zu angeborenen Fehlbildungen in der Umgebung von Atomkraftwerken als argumentative Schützenhilfe zu Gunsten der Atomindustrie. Die Mainzer Studie hat aufgrund geringer Fallzahlen eine zu geringe statistische Nachweisstärke (power), um einen Effekt in ähnlicher Größenordnung wie in der vorangegangenen Studie zu Kinderkrebs um Atomkraftwerke (KiKK-Studie) nachzuweisen.

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* LIBANON: Frauen-Hilfsschiff will Gaza-Blockade durchbrechen

The ‘Maryam’, an all-female Lebanese aid ship, currently docked in the northern Lebanese port of Tripoli, is getting ready to set sail for Gaza in the next few days. The ship, which aims to break Israel’s siege on the Palestinian territory, will carry about 50 aid workers, including some U.S. nuns keen to deliver aid to the long-suffering women and children of Gaza.

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[Update: 14:17]

* AFGHANISTAN: Kein Zutrauen ins Parlament

Afghans Disillusioned with Candidate Choice. Most current parliamentarians plan to stand again, despite widespread public mistrust and disappointment.

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* GLOBAL: Funktioniert das Wirtschaftssystem ohne Wachstum?

Is De-Growth Compatible with Capitalism? A serious campaign in favor of “de-growth” has been going on for some time and has made important contributions. This movement has opened new avenues for debate and analysis on technology, credit, education and other important areas. It’s an effort that needs support and attention, and we must applaud their initiators and promoters for their boldness and dedication.

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* ECUADOR:: Regierungskritische Positionen der Indigenen Völker

On July 5, I sat down with Marlon Santi, President of the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE), in his office in Quito. We discussed the increasing contradictions between the demands of the indigenous movement, on the one hand, around water rights and anti-mining resistance, and the positions of the government of Rafael Correa, on the other, which has labelled indigenous resistance to large-scale mining and oil exploitation as “terrorism and sabotage.”

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* DACH: Antimuslimische Ressentiments

Die westliche Zivilisation wird in deutschsprachigen Zeitungen von Leuten wie Broder und Sarazin verteidigt, als ob SIE wieder vor Wien ständen. Die barbarischen Seiten des Westens werden beim Islam-Bashing gerne und schnell unter den Teppich gekehrt. Die deutsche Integrationspolitik schrumpft über die Symbolpolitik à la Islamkonferenz auf religiöse Fragen zusammen, Aspekte von sozialer Ungleichheit werden ausgeklammert.

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* USA: Kritik an Obamas Gesetz zur Finanzmarktreform

“In den USA ist die größte Finanzmarktreform seit der Weltwirtschaftskrise in den 30er Jahren beschlossen worden”, schreibt die taz. Klingt groß, heißt wenig: die US-Finanz-Gesetzgebung ist seit Ende der 1960er Jahre eine Geschichte der De-Regulierung. Selbst diesmal konnte die Finanzlobby wichtige Regeln abschwächen – wie die taz an anderer Stelle kritisch berichtet.
Die US-Reform wird häufig als Erfolg der Politik bewertet – aber selbst angesichts der dramatischen Krise konnte die Finanzbranche durch massive Lobbyarbeit das “Dodd-Frank Financial Reform Bill” an wichtigen Stellen verwässern. So gibt es zahlreiche kritische Einschätzungen.

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* INDONESIEN: Weltbank finanziert zerstörerische Nickel-Mine

An international civil society coalition today condemned the World Bank for approving support for a destructive nickel mine that would displace Indigenous Peoples, destroy vast areas of intact tropical forest, and threaten rivers and the ocean with sediment and toxic chemicals.

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* USA: Historiker warnt vor dem plötzlichen Zusammenbruch des “US-Imperiums”

Der Harvard-Professor und erfolgreiche Autor Niall Ferguson eröffnete am Montag das Festival der Ideen 2010 des Aspen-Institutes mit der ernst gemeinten Warnung, wegen seiner ständig steigenden Verschuldung werde ein plötzlicher Zusammenbruch des “US-Imperiums” immer wahrscheinlicher.
“Ich denke, dass dieses Problem sehr bald eintritt,” sagte Ferguson. “Damit meine ich innerhalb der
nächsten zwei Jahre, weil sich die Situation finanziell und in anderer Hinsicht immer mehr dem Chaos nähert. Wir haben gerade in Griechenland erlebt, was geschieht, wenn der Kapitalmarkt das Vertrauen in die Finanzpolitik eines Landes verliert.” Ferguson erinnerte daran, dass Imperien – wie die ehemalige Sowjetunion und das römische Reich – ganz schnell kollabieren können und der Wendepunkt häufig dann eintritt, wenn die Zinsen für die Schulden eines Imperiums höher werden als seine Verteidigungsausgaben.

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* INDIEN: Diplomatische Verrenkungen beim Atomwaffensprerrvertrag

The recently concluded Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference (RevCon) has renewed the call for the universalisation of the treaty. The NPT RevCon has asked India along with Pakistan and Israel – the three non-signatory states to the NPT- to unilaterally disarm and join the treaty as Non-Nuclear Weapon States (NNWS). However, India possesses nuclear weapons.

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* RUSSLAND: Umweltschützer verhindern Wald-Rodung

Die russischen UmweltschützerInnen, die zu Dutzenden, teilweise sogar mit 300 Personen die Rodungsarbeiten in der Nähe des Moskauer Flughafens Scheremetjewo behindert haben, haben die Rodungen – vorerst – verhindert.

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* GUATEMALA: Königsgrab der Maya entdeckt

Luftdicht verschlossene Grabkammer konservierte prächtige Grabbeigaben und Knochen. Ein bisher unbekanntes Königsgrab der Maya haben ArchäologInnen in der Maya-Stadt El Zotz im Dschungel Guatemalas entdeckt. Es enthielt ungewöhnlich gut erhaltene, 1.600 Jahre alte Schnitzereien, Keramiken und Stoffe sowie die Knochen von einem Erwachsenen und sechs möglicherweise geopferten Kindern. Das prächtig ausgestattete Grab gehört wahrscheinlich einem Herrscher, möglicherweise dem Gründer einer Dynastie der präklassischen Maya.

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* GROSSBRITANNIEN: Kriegsdienstverweigernder Soldat aus Haft entlassen

Joe Glenton, the soldier who refused to return to fight in Afghanistan and who spoke out against the war, was released from military prison.

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* VIETNAM: Einbürgerung von Flüchtlingen aus Kambodscha

Ho-Chi-Minh-Stadt – Mit einem Festakt hat die vietnamesische Regierung 287 ehemalige Flüchtlinge aus Kambodscha eingebürgert. UNHCR begrüßt diesen Schritt außerordentlich. Vietnam gibt dadurch ein wichtiges Signal, die Staatenlosigkeit für insgesamt mehr als 2.300 ehemalige Flüchtlinge aus Kambodscha endgültig ad acta zu legen. Die meisten Kambodschaner waren 1975 vor Pol Pots blutigem Regime nach Vietnam geflohen.

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* KIRGISIEN: “Millionär werden, das ist Demokratie!”

In Kirgistan trägt die Marktwirtschaft ganz eigene Züge: Nach dem Ende der “Sozialistischen Sowjetrepublik” wurden Fettschwanzschafe, Wallnussbäume und Spitzmorcheln privatisiert. Seitdem greifen viele Kirgisen uralte Nomadentraditionen wieder auf: Sie pendeln auf dem Pferd zwischen Wäldern, Wiesen und Hochalmen und leben im Sommer in Jurten. Das klingt romantisch, doch die meisten Kirgisen müssen heute ums Überleben kämpfen oder erinnern sich wehmütig an die Sowjetzeit mit ihren großen Betrieben und festen Arbeitsplätzen. Andere sind weniger nostalgisch: „Jetzt kann jeder Millionär werden, das ist Demokratie“, lobt ausgerechnet die bettelarme Gulnara, deren Familie allein vom Erlös gesammelter Nüsse lebt.

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* AFGHANISTAN: Unendliche Besatzung?

The international foreign ministers conference held in Kabul Tuesday formally endorsed President Hamid Karzai’s proposed 2014 target for Afghan forces to assume the lead responsibility for the country’s security, while acknowledging that the foreign occupation will continue indefinitely.

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* BRD: Niebels Zaudern im Kampf gegen AIDS

Der Entwicklungshilfeminister gefährdet die internationale Aids-Hilfe. Deutschland könnte als drittgrößter Geldgeber bald ausfallen. Ein fatales Signal, meint H. Albrecht.

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* ZENTRALAFRIKANISCHE REPUBLIK: Friedensprozess gerät ins Stocken

A Sudanese led rebel faction in the Central African Republic has engaged the armies of the Central African Republic (CAR) over a disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) process- under a peace agreement signed ahead of national elections in CAR, military and rebel sources said.

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* USA: Die Wiederkehr der Sklaverei

For the first time, the U.S. government acknowledges modern-day slavery in the United States.
One-hundred-and-fifty years after the abolition of slavery, the State Department has acknowledged that people in the United States continue to be bought and sold as property. The department’s 2010 “Trafficking in Persons” (TIP) report, a global review of human trafficking and civic and legal responses to it, lists the United States for the first time among the nations that harbor modern-day slavery.

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Global: (Be-)Merkenswerte Gesundheitsstatistik

Mittwoch, Juli 14th, 2010

GLOBAL: Ten eyebrow-raising health stats



Photo: Tugela Ridley/IRIN
Where are the world’s youngest mothers?

DAKAR, 14 July 2010 (IRIN) – Pause for thought: IRIN has trawled the 2010 World Health Statistics report to bring you 10 fascinating facts on global health.

Not the spreadable kind: In 43 low-income countries 40 percent more people had non-communicable diseases – including diabetes, heart disease and stroke – than infectious illnesses in 2004. Non-infectious diseases killed 33 million worldwide in 2004.

Sleepless in Swaziland: No under-five children slept under insecticide-treated bed nets to ward off malarial mosquitoes in Swaziland, whereas in Madagascar 60 percent of children did so, according to the countries’ most recent surveys conducted since 2000.

Midwifery in Uzbekistan: Uzbekistan is the only low-income country in the past decade to boast coverage of nurses and midwives similar to that in high-income countries – 108 nurses and/or midwives per 10,000 residents. Australia (109), Switzerland (110), Luxembourg (104) and Canada’s (100) are comparable.

Oil-rich, but doctor-poor: Equatorial Guinea, which in 2009 had the world’s 64th highest per capita income, and the highest in sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank), had the same number of doctors per 10,000 residents (3) as did Bangladesh, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Namibia, Togo, Sudan, Yemen and the Pacific islands of Samoa and Tonga.

Protected in the Pacific: Fewer than a quarter of women in Africa reported using contraception, while over 80 percent of women in the region WHO classifies as western Pacific used it. Chad had the world’s lowest contraceptive use at 2.8 percent.

Choking on fumes: Of the 20 countries worldwide where more than 95 percent of those surveyed reported using solid fuels (wood, coal, charcoal, crops) for indoor cooking – associated with higher rates of fatal respiratory diseases like pneumonia – six are in West Africa (not counting Benin, Gambia and Chad, which come within points of the highest threshold.)


Photo: Rodrigo A. Nguema/IRIN
Petrol dollars have not made it to parts of Equatorial Guinea’s capital, Malabo (file photo)

Measles: While 76 percent of one-year-olds in Africa on average were immunized against measles in 2008 versus 58 percent in 1990, these rates were 24 and 51 percent, respectively, in Somalia and Equatorial Guinea in 2008.

Slow on sanitation: Thirty percent of people in Africa used “improved sanitation facilities” – including a composting or flushing toilet, piped sewer systems, septic tanks, or latrines with open ventilation or concrete slabs – in 1990. Eighteen years later, the statistical equivalent of less than half an additional person joined them.

Under-weight children: Some four out of 10 under-five children are considered underweight in Niger, India and Yemen.

Youngest mothers: Almost two out of 10 girls aged 15-19 in Niger have given birth, followed by Afghanistan (1.5) and Bangladesh (1.3).

 

(Quelle: IRIN News.)

 

Siehe auch:

GLOBAL: Poll ranks AIDS as top health issue
GLOBAL: Health lessons from four big earthquakes

Brazilien: Folgt das Land Nicaragua beim Thema Abtreibung?

Mittwoch, Juni 23rd, 2010

“Abortion and Human Rights: Will Brazil be the Next Nicaragua?

By Sonia Correa

Editor’s note: A correction was made to this article at 1:20 pm on Thursday, June 17th to remove reference to ‘fetal abnormalities’ as a condition under which abortion is allowed in Brazil. This condition, originally drawn from the TIME magazine article referenced below, is, according to the author, not a legal exception in Brazil.

This article is an updated and expanded version of a paper originally published by Sexuality Policy Watch [1]. See other recent coverage of sexual and reproductive health politics in Brazil, including a recent piece in TIME magazine [2], and on RH Reality Check [3].

Brazilian women have seen important setbacks in regard to access to abortion in recent years. A clear turning point was September 2005, when a law aimed at reforming existing punitive legislation on abortion—which currently is illegal except in cases of rape or when the mother’s life is in danger–was presented to the Congress without the required support of the executive branch. A few months earlier the government, responding to a recommendation of the First National Conference on Women’s Policies [4](2004), had in fact called for the formation of a tripartite commission to revise the penal code on abortion.  But when, in August 2005, the Commission delivered a draft bill to legalize abortion, it got caught up in the complexities of a full-blown corruption crisis, (read the Pope’s Visit to Brazil [5]). The present scramble around the III National Program for Human Rights Policies [6] is, therefore, just another chapter in this ongoing saga.

One good thing is that the current controversy has allowed for abortion to be discussed widely in Brazil, and, for the first time, as a human rights issue. It is not trivial either that the macro-level political bargains triggered by recent political controversies have situated abortion as the ‘other’ problematic issue to be negotiated among key actors (in addition to the Commission of Truth, proposed by the III National Program for Human Rights to revise state crimes committed during dictatorship).

To understand the meaning and complexity of the debate underway, it is worth reviewing at least two key elements of contemporary Brazilian history. The first is that, as in other countries in Latin America, the progressive Catholic Church of the time was a key defender of political and civil rights during dictatorship. The conservative Catholic Church that emerged after the election of John Paul II as the Pope in 1979, however, systematically contested all advances in the area of sexual and reproductive rights (particularly regarding abortion) that emerged as a result of democratization.

The resistance of the Brazilian military and of some sectors of the political elite to fully reviewing state crimes committed during the military regime is another key feature to be highlighted. In Chile, South Africa, and Peru (after the Fujimori authoritarian period), Commissions of Truth and Reconciliation were established. In Uruguay and Argentina, clear and sharp judicial review and punishment of military dictatorship crimes have also taken place and are still underway. But in Brazil, the 1979 Amnesty Law that ‘pardoned’ those engaged in political and armed action against the regime has also forgiven state actors involved in human rights abuses and is consistently interpreted, by those resisting a full historical review, as a final and definite closure of the past.

However, in the mid-1990s, a Commission was established at the Ministry of Justice to search for missing persons and unidentified corpses and to financially compensate people who had lost family members, as well as people whose professional careers had been affected by political persecution. No full review of state crimes committed between 1964 and 1984, however, has been conducted. The objective of the Truth Commission proposed in the III National Program for Human Rights is to complete the difficult work of historical review and closure.

The III National Program for Human Rights by and large maintains and expands proposals contained in a previous program, which was adopted in 2002 (at the end of the Cardoso administration). But it also incorporates language coming from a variety of sources: existing legislation on human rights of specific groups (such as children and indigenous people); recommendations from the periodical National Conferences on Human Rights and other conferences that directly address human rights issues (such as the National Conferences on Health, on Women’s Public Policies, on Public Policies for the LGBT population and so forth); recommendations from international conventions; and other relevant international documents.

The III National Program for Human Rights recognizes that human rights are indivisible in that they encompass civil, political, economic, and social rights. The document covers a wide range of subjects such as: food security; the right to health and within it, further regulation of private health insurance; prison conditions and rights of incarcerated persons; judicial procedures regarding rural property occupation by landless peasants; genetically modified seeds; social accountability of media outlets; same-sex civil unions; and the display of religious symbols in public buildings.

In relation to abortion specifically, a proposal to revise existing laws punishing abortion — derived from the Beijing Platform — was already included in the 2002 program. The language adopted in the new text is based on the First National Plan for Women’s Policy (2004) [7] and calls for the decriminalization of abortion to guarantee women’s autonomy over their bodies.

The document, though prepared by the National Special Secretary for Human Rights, was revised by all concerned ministries and signed by their respective ministers. However, when its content became public and was absorbed by key political actors, harsh controversies erupted within government itself on various parts of the document. Two ministers openly expressed their disagreement with the text. The minister of agriculture complained about the plan’s call to ban genetically modified seeds. Most critically, the minister of defense, who is a civilian, publicly declared that the military did not accept the language adopted in relation to the commission of truth, as it exclusively referred to crimes committed by state actors, without recognizing the human rights abuses committed by political dissidents.

Concurrently, other actors raised their voices against other critical areas. Representatives of rural landowners complained about the judicial rules concerning land occupation, private health insurance companies argued against proposals regarding ceilings in premium costs for aging people, and the media contested the call for greater social accountability. Most importantly, the Catholic Church immediately expressed its full opposition to the proposals on the legalization of both abortion and same-sex marriage, as well as the proposal about the display of religious symbols in public edifices. The main complaint of Catholic Bishops was that the Program went against ‘defense of the right to life.’  While a large number of content areas of the third program were contested and discussed, it is significant that the debate very quickly crystallized predominantly around the truth commission and abortion.

In response to the reaction of the minister of defense, speaking on behalf of conservative voices within the military, the National Secretary of Human Rights threatened to resign, and President Lula very quickly called a closed meeting between the two competing ministers to find a solution to the crisis. After the meeting, a new presidential decree was immediately published. It changed the language originally adopted by the Program, eliminating the terms ‘political repression’ in order to dilute the exclusive focus on state violations. This quick move has muted, at least for the time being, the conservative military reaction.  The public debate on the matter has also made clear that the Truth Commission has wide public support. However, it is too soon to claim that the controversy is fully resolved, as it may resurge when the subject is debated at the level of Congress.

The dynamics of the political bargaining were, however, completely different in the case of the abortion debate. While the ‘truth commission problem’ was being processed, the Secretary of Human Rights declared that the text on abortion should be changed because, he said, the justification used for legalizing abortion – to ‘guarantee women’s autonomy’ – was a feminist argument and did not reflect the government’s position on the subject. Although he did not explicitly state what the official position was, previous episodes concerning abortion suggest that it would involve framing abortion as a major public health problem (and eventually maintaining the law as it stands today).

Immediately after this declaration, the Secretary met with the representative of the National Conference to discuss the matter. Almost a month elapsed before he met with the feminist organizations representing the voices of those who support abortion legalization.  Unsafe abortion is indeed a major public health problem in Brazil: Roughly one in five Brazilian women have an abortion, and 200,000 women each year are hospitalized due to complications from unsafe abortion.

Right after the National Secretary on Human Rights stated that the government would seek support for the Program from the international human rights system. In fact, the UN High Commissioner Navi Pillai, who recently visited Brazil, has already published an article in the Brazilian Press (Folha de São Paulo) openly supporting the creation of the Truth commission. But the next governmental step would be to ask UNESCO to consider the dictatorship archives and a patrimony of humanity and to have the Office of the High Commissioner assess the consistency of the III Program with existing international human rights law. Resorting to international human rights instruments to defend the III Program was certainly a quite remarkable step. But it should be also noted that while existing international instruments provide strong supporting arguments for those topics relating to political persecution and measures of truth investigation, the identification of international human rights language on sexuality and abortion is more complex. It will require the content of international conference documents and of recommendations issued by human rights surveillance organizations to be made visible and to be valued.

Meanwhile, feminists and other sectors have mobilized countrywide to support the Program, particularly around International Women’s Day.   But on March 16th, the press announced that the National Secretary on Human Rights had declared that three items included on the plan would be eliminated or modified: the recommendation on religious symbols in public buildings, the rules concerning land occupation, and, evidently, the language on legalization of abortion.  Not surprisingly, the next day, the police closed an abortion clinic located in a poor area of downtown, and health professionals and clients (some of them bleeding) were criminally indicted.

Petitions and protests against the announced decision quickly circulated. Feminist organizations gathered around the The Brazilian Initiative for the Right to Legal and Safe Abortion [8] (Jornadas por um Aborto Legal e Seguro) and signed a public letter making it clear that they would not accept any change in the language adopted by the III Program. On March 19th, in a public event organized by the Public Defenders’ Office in Rio to discuss the III Program, the Secretary said that, in relation to the abortion debate, he had consulted not only Bishops but also Catholics for Choice. Most importantly, he informed the audience that the call for decriminalizing abortion would not be eliminated but that language would be modified to be consistent with what is written in the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women Beijing Platform of Action [9] (paragraph 106k, which combines paragraph 8.25 of ICPD with the recommendation that countries must revise punitive legislation). But in light of the constant back-and-forth of the controversy, this may not be the end of the debate.

On April 27th the National Secretary of Human Rights declared that the language on abortion would be amended as to address it as a major public health problem and to recommend de-criminalization along the line of Beijing paragraph 106k.  Then on the 29th the Supreme Court finally decided the case presented by the National Bar Association (OAB Brasil) claiming that torture and killing, being crimes against humanity, should be excluded from the rule of general pardon defined by the 1979 Amnesty Law. Seven judges voted against the claim preserving the therefore the ‘closure’ nature of the Amnesty Law, which was adopted before the 1988 Constitution.  In the words of Marcos Nobre, a sharp political analyst and op-ed writer:

[The Supreme Court decision] considered a law approved under the military dictatorship a foundational source of the present democratic order.  This attitude is more than paradoxical. It is and authentic institutional suicide.                   

The entire episode is revealing of the complex contradictions of the Lula administration, which are not always easily understood by those who do not experience the daily dynamics of domestic politics. These contradictions involve both internal, high level tensions and big gaps between the positions expressed by civil society voices in participatory policy mechanisms – such as international conferences – and official positions that are usually framed in terms of economic interests and electoral bargains. Trends and skirmishes observed between January and April revealed, once again, how legalization of abortion was deeply caught within the complex webs of a major political trade-off in which the real prize at stake was the Commission of Truth. It is not trivial either that the Catholic Church, which was a major advocate for political rights during dictatorship, is once again fully opposing abortion, same sex marriage and secular rules about the display of religious symbols. And most principally the Supreme Court decision is not a good sign in terms of the future of Brazilian democracy in its broader sense.

Yet even despite the positive signs seen in late April, in fact, further regression in relation to abortion was yet to come. On May 13th, President Lula finally signed a new decree altering the text of III National Program for Human Rights (PNDH3), in relation to decriminalization of abortion, the prohibition of religious symbols display in public buildings, social accountability of media, procedures regarding the mediation of agrarian conflicts. Particularly in respect to abortion the new text simply states, ‘abortion is considered as a public health problem in relation to which access to health services is to be ensured.’

Then on May 19th the Commission on Family and Social Security (CSSF) of the House of Representatives approved a legal provision entitled the ‘Statute of the Unborn.’  The definition of the ‘unborn’ in the approved text includes both in uterus and in vitro [10] embryos. If approved, the provision may imply the a judicial interpretation that human life begins at conception and this will lead to the elimination of article 128 of the Penal Code that defines the two cases in which abortion is permitted: rape and women’s life risk.  An agreement reached among the members of the Commission at the end of the debates also led to adoption of complementary and convoluted additional text, in which it is stated that, if the provision is approved, Article 128 will not be changed. This last minute maneuver aims at appeasing the electorate, as all opinion polls performed in Brazil in the last decade that indicate that society does not want to see any further erosion in the right to abortion. 

The approval of the Statute follows a well-known pattern, as since 2005 whenever the executive branch back-pedals, anti-abortion forces make a jump forward.  Despite the last moment maneuver to preserve article 128, the preliminary provision also makes clear that the main goal of anti-choice forces is to further restrict the law. This is not a surprise either.  In 2007 when the Pope visited Brazil [5] a Brazilian priest who is a member of Human Rights International announced publicly that their goal was to make Brazil ‘a big Nicaragua.’

The text of the provision nears absurdity. For instance: what can be the possible interpretation of Art. 12 of that states that  ‘It is forbidden for the State and private individuals to cause any injury to the unborn by reason of acts performed by any of the parents.’  Or what to say about an article in the provision, which establishes public-funded ‘incentives’ for women who become pregnant as a result of rape not to terminate the pregnancy. The incentives include antenatal assistance and psychological support; state facilitation for the child to be placed for adoption, in case the woman agrees; and provisions to compel the ‘father’ of the unborn to pay ‘alimony’; in case the ‘father’ is not identified, ‘alimony’ will be provided by the state.

Feminists have strongly reacted to these proposals, because if adopted, they will mean state legitimization of sexual violence, complicity with the crime of rape and total disregard the physical and psychological effects of rape.  Some voices have also recalled that inducing women to take to term a pregnancy resulting from rape can be interpreted as forced pregnancy and be equated with torture. 

The Finances and Tax Commission will now analyze the budgetary and financial implications of the provision. Subsequently, the Commission on Constitution, Justice and Citizenship will assess its constitutionality and make revisions before sending it to be voted by the House. It is vital that the international sexual and reproductive health and rights community pays closely attention to the rocky road that lies ahead if for no other reason than because Brazil today is an emerging power. 


Links:
[1] http://www.sxpolitics.org/?cat=1
[2] http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1993205,00.html
[3] http://www.rhrealitycheck.org/blog/2010/05/27/brazilian-seeks-establish-extensive-rights-fertilized-eggs-including-child-support
[4] http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=38922
[5] http://www.sxpolitics.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/wp_2008_ing-final.pdf
[6] http://globalvoicesonline.org/2010/01/27/brazil-the-national-program-for-human-rights-part-1/
[7] http://www.un.int/brazil/speech/005d-fdem-Item 64 – women 1310.htm
[8] http://www.opendemocracy.net/article/5050/how_feminists_make_progress
[9] http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/
[10] http://www.ccr.org.br/ “

 

(Quelle: RH Reality Check.)